Articles

USS Louisville (CA-28), Mare Island, 7 April 1945

USS Louisville (CA-28), Mare Island, 7 April 1945



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

USS Louisville (CA-28), Mare Island, 7 April 1945

Here we see a stern view of the Northampton class heavy cruiser USS Louisville (CA-28) off Mare Island on 7 April 1945. The circled alterations aren't at all easy to spot!


Parts of a USS Louisville Found in One of the Most Unexpected Places – Nevada Desert

Starting out as a light cruiser and ending as a heavy cruiser, the USS Louisville (CL/CA-28) was very effective during its service in the Pacific War. Being hit by several Kamikaze attacks, the ship continued to serve until the end of the war.

However, an end to the conflict also brought about the beginning of the end of its use as a heavy cruiser. After serving in postwar duties, the ship was decommissioned and sent to the Atlantic Reserve Fleet where it spent the next 13 years.

It was eventually struck off the Naval Vessel Register and sold for scraps.

At this point, the story of the Louisville should have come to an end.

The U.S. Navy heavy cruiser the USS Louisville (CA-28) off the Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California (USA), on December 17, 1943. The ship’s camouflage scheme is probably Measure 32, Design 6d. Note that no hull number was painted on the bow.

However, 60 years after her scrapping, it still comes to mind — not for its deeds on the seas, but for something completely different and unrelated to WWII.

As a matter of fact, its reappearance under the limelight is closely connected to the most controversial nuclear tests in the United States’ history: Operation Plumbbob.

Operation Plumbbob involved the serial explosion of 29 atomic bombs in Southern Nevada. The nuclear tests were carried out to determine the effects of nuclear explosions on people, animal, and structures.

November 1951 nuclear test at Nevada Test Site. Test is shot “Dog” from Operation Buster, with a yield of 21 kilotons of TNT (88 TJ). It was the first U.S. nuclear field exercise conducted with live troops maneuvering on land. Troops shown are 6 mi (9.7 km) from the blast.

The operation exposed about 18,000 members of the US armed forces and over 1,000 pigs to blast-effect studies.

During that summer, 62 years ago, the skies of Southern Nevada burned with massive flames and thick smoke. The earth shook violently as one nuke after another exploded at the testing site.

Between May 28 th and October 7 th , 1957, twenty-nine atomic bombs were detonated at the Nevada Testing Site. From miles away, mushroom clouds were visible, surging up into the skies.

Operation Plumbbob.

One of the survivors of the blasts was a WWII relic which had its origin in the US Navy.

Four years ago, during a visit to the Nevada Testing Site which is now the Nevada National Security Site, physicist Rob Hoffman noticed the odd WWII relic in Area 2 of the facility.

According to Hoffman, at first glance, it looked like a weird-looking trailer. But as he got close to it, he came to recognize what it was: a turret from a US ship. It was, in fact, Turret No.2 of the heavy cruiser USS Louisville.

Perhaps Hoffman had been able to recognize the large, metallic structure because he hailed from a family of U.S. Navy personnel.

USS Louisville in 1938

During WWII, the US Navy employed heavy cruisers in the darkest, most intense sea battles. So how did this essential part of a Navy ship end up there?

During its service in the Pacific War, the Louisville was hit on multiple occasions by Kamikaze planes. During one of these Kamikaze attacks, Turret No.2 was damaged.

The damaged turret was removed and replaced by a new one. The original turret was subsequently repaired and fit for use again. But when the war ended, it was no longer required by the Navy, so it was left in the shipyard to gather dust for over a decade.

USS Louisville hit by a kamikaze (Mitsubishi Ki-51) in Lingayen Gulf, 6 January 1945

From there, the turret found its way to the Nevada Testing Site where a different use was found for it. As Hoffman stared at the turret, he realized that the barrel on the turret was not a gun, but a rotatable radiation detection device, used in the collection of data on nuclear tests.

During the Plumbbob operation, workers needed to construct bunkers filled with detection equipment during each test. The connecting coax cables were up to a mile long and needed to be buried 20 feet (6 meters) underneath the ground to avoid being melted by the blasts.

This was not only time-consuming, but it was also costly. As a result, there was a need for a device with a reasonable line of sight which could safeguard the detectors while pointing at each of the devices as they got scattered around.

USS Louisville at Aleutian Islands

This is all gobbledygook to a layman, but contractor Erv Woodward knew what he meant when he voiced the idea. He pointed out that the new device would save money and energy as the workers would no longer need to build special-purpose bunkers all the time.

So Woodward and his colleagues went to the Mare Island shipyard in San Francisco where they selected this war-stricken turret. They transported it all the way to the Nevada Testing Site, driving along Interstate Highway 15, past the curious stares of the public.

After the 203 mm gun barrels were removed, the detection device was put together and set on a stand that allowed it to rotate in circles.

The U.S. Navy heavy cruiser USS Louisville (CA-28) arrives off the Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California (USA), on 6 February 1945 to receive repairs for damage inflicted by two Kamikazes a month earlier.

During the tests, the turret collected radiation data from each nuke explosion, ultimately surviving the intense blasts.

Today, the turret sits once again in obscurity. It is worn out by decades of being baked in the searing heat of the Mojave desert.

USS Louisville (CA-28) off the Mare Island Navy Yard, California, 26 May 1942.

Originally, nobody knew from which ship the turret had come. The only information available was that it had been obtained from a shipyard. Only when Rob Hoffman turned detective did the origin of the turret come to light.

For days, Hoffman analyzed the scars around the metal and drew parallels between WWII records of heavy cruisers. Patiently and carefully, he narrowed the origin of the turret down to the USS Louisville.


Contents

Louisville ' s shakedown cruise, running through the summer, fall, and winter of 1931, took her from Bremerton to New York City via the Panama Canal. Returning from New York, she participated in the 1932 fleet problems before commencing gunnery exercises in the San Pedro-San Diego area. During the winter of 1933, she steamed for Hawaii, returning after exercises to San Pedro where she became a schoolship for anti-aircraft training. In April 1934, the cruiser steamed out of San Diego to begin a nine-month voyage "showing the flag" at various ports in Central America, the Caribbean, and along the gulf and east coasts. Arriving back in California in late fall, Louisville participated in gunnery and tactical exercises until the spring of 1935, when she departed for Dutch Harbor, Alaska, and, thence, to Pearl Harbor to take part in fleet problems.

For the next two years, she operated off the West Coast, participating in the 1936 and 1937 fleet problems, making good will calls at Latin American ports and undergoing local training operations. In January 1938, Louisville began a long $3 cruise which took her to Hawaii, Samoa, Australia, and Tahiti before returning to Pearl Harbor for fleet problems. While in Sydney, the crew of the Louisville rescued a number of passengers from a sightseeing ferryboat which had capsized when most of the passengers crowded to the rail to wave the cruiser off.

The winter of 1939 found the Louisville participating in fleet exercises in the Caribbean. She operated in these warm waters until May, when she returned to the west coast. After fleet problems off Hawaii that autumn, Louisville departed Long Beach, California for an extended cruise through the Panama Canal to eastern South America. At Bahia, Brazil, she received orders to proceed to Simonstown, South Africa.

As a neutral ship, Louisville traveled the U-boat infested waters with her American flag spotlighted. At Simonstown, she received $148 million in British gold for deposit in the United States. She then sailed for New York City, delivered her precious cargo and returned to the Pacific.


USS Louisville (CA-28), Mare Island, 7 April 1945 - History

Louisville III
(CL-28: dp. 0,050 1. 600'3", b. 66

199 dr. 16'4" s. 32.5 k. cpl. 621 a. 9 8" 4 5", 6 21" tt. cl. Northampton.)

The third Louisville (CL-28) was launched 1 September 1930 at the Puget Sound Navy Yard, Bremerton,Wash., sponsored by Miss Jane Brown Rennedy, commissioned 15 January 1931, Capt. E. J. Marquart in command. Effective 1 July 1931, Louisville was redesignated CA-28 in accordance with the provisions of the London Naval Treaty of 1930.

Louisville's shakedown cruise, running through the summer, fall, and winter of 1931, took her from Bremerton to New York City via the Panama Canal. Returning from New York. she participated in the 1932 fleet problems before commencing gunnery exercises in the San Pedro-San Diego area. During the winter of 1933 she steamed for Hawaii, returning after exercises to San Pedro where she became a schoolship for antiaircraft training. In April, 1934, the cruiser steamed out of San Diego to begin a 9-month voyage "showing the flag" at various ports in Central America, the Caribbean, and along the gulf and east coasts. Arriving back in California in late fall, Louisville participated in gunnery and tactical exercises until the spring oi 1935, when she departed for Dutch Harbor, Alaska, and, thence, to Pearl Harbor to take part in fleet problems.

For the next 2 years she operated off the west coast participating in the 1936 and 1937 fleet problems, making good will calls at Latin American ports and undergoing local training operations. In January, 1938, Louisville began a long Pacidc cruise which took her to Hawaii, Samoa, Australia, and Tahiti before returning to Pearl Harbor for fleet problems. While in Sydney, the crew of Louisville rescued a number of passengers from a sightseeing ferryboat which had capsized when most of the passengers crowded to the rail to wave the cruiser off.

The winter of 1939 found Loisville participating in fleet exercises in the Caribbean. She operated in these warm waters until May, when she returned to the west coast After fleet problems, off Hawaii, that autumn, Louisville departed Long Beach for an extended cruise through the Panama Canal to eastern South America. At Bahia, Brazil, she received orders to proceed to Simonstown, South Africa.

As a neutral ship, Louisville traveled the U-boat infested waters with her American flag spotlighted. At Simonstown, she received $148 million in British gold for deposit in the United States. She then sailed for New York City, delivered her precious cargo and returned to the Pacific.

On 7 December 1941, Louisville, escorting A. T. Scott and President Coolidge, was.en route from Tarakan, East Borneo, to Pearl Harbor. She continued on to Hawaii, stopped briefly to survey the damage and proceeded on to California. There she joined TF 17 and steamed from San Diego, 6 June 1942, for Sarloa, landing troops there on the 22d. Her first offensive operation of the war came on her return trip when she took part in carrier plane raids on the Gilbert and Marshall Islands. During this action, she lost one of her planes.

After a short stay at Pearl Harbor, Louisville commenced patrolling the Canton E Elice area to help protect our bases in that vicinity. Early in March she joined TF 11, a carrier force, and began operations to stem the Japanese advancement down the Bismarck Archipelago and the Solomons. This force sreamed in the SalamanaLac-Rabaul sector for a number of days, making airstrikes on numerous objectives.

Following this operation, Louisville returned to Pearl Harbor, proceeding thence to Mare Island Navy Yard, San Francisco, where her armament was increased. On 31 May, she steamed for the Aleutians to join TF 8. Her duties during this period of Japan's str

ngest efforts to establish the northern end of her "ribbon defense" in the western Aleutians, were primarily those of convoy escort, but included shore bombardment of Kiska Island.

On 11 November, the cruiser departed San Francisco for Pearl Harbor, continuing, aiter a few days on to the Soutb Pacific, escorting several troop transports as far as New Caledonia. She then proceeded north to Espiritu Santo to join TF 67, which was then battling .Japanese forces in the Solomons. On 29 January 19

3, she participated in the Battle off Rennell Island, the last of the seven naval battles for Guadalcanal, after which E`he operated east of the island until it was entirely secured.

In April, Louisville steamed, via Pearl Harbor, to the Aleutians. There, as a unit of TF 16, she covered the assault and occupation of Attu (11 to 30 May) and participated in the preinvasion bombardment of Kiska in July.

After the latter was evacuted by the Japanese, she conducted escort of convoy operations in the northern Pacific In January 1944, Louisville returned to the southern Pacific as the flagship of Rear Adm. J. B. Oldendorf, who was to command the naval gunflre support groups through the amphibious operations ahead. In the Marshalls at the end of the month, she bombarded Wotje Island, west of Kwajalein, on the 29th. Then she turned her guns on the airfleld and troop concentrations on Roi and Namur on the southern tip oi the atoll, contributing to the conquest of those islandH by 3 February. Two weeks later, Louisville led the gunflre support group into action at Eniwetok, which succumbed on the 22d.

After Entwetok, Louisville joined TF 58, and with the fast carriers struck Japanese installations in the Palaus, in March, and bombarded Truk and Sawatan in April. June brought preparations for the invasion of the greater Marianas, and, again Louisville was the leading unit in shore bombardment operations beginning with Salpan, where she flred continuously for the flrst 11 days of that engagement, through the shelling of Tinian, and endinF with the assault on Guam.

After the Marianas, Louisville retired to the rear area until mid-September, when she steamed to the Palaus for the preinvasion bombardment of Peleliu. Then as advanced bases were created, flnal preparations for the invasion of the Philippines were made. On 18 October Louisville entered Leyte Gulf and pounded Japanese shore installations Seven days later she participated in the last engagement of a battleline as the Japanese southern force attempted to iom its way into Leyte Gulf through Surigao Strait. The American battleline, drawn across the strait by Admiral Oldendorf, virtually destroyed the Japanese force as it was harassed through the strait and into their guns by PT boats and destroyers stationed on either side of the narrow'body of water.

Following Leyte operations, Louisville rejoined the iast carriers now designated TF 38, and participated in preinvasion strikes against the enemy on Luzon. By the new year, 1945, Louisville was headed towards Lingayen Guli.

While en route, 5 to 8 January, two kamikazea headed for and scored on her. Despite extensive damage, the cruiser shelled the beaches and shot down several enemy planes before withdrawin'' and proceeding to Mare Island for repairs.

Her repairs completed in the spring, Louisville returned to the Pacific to join TF 54 in providing firecover for ground forces on Okinawa. On 5 June she was again hit by a kamikaze, but wns back on the flring line by the 9th, to remain on station until ordered back to Pearl Harbor for repairs on the 15th

With the end of thele war, 14 August, Louisville was again seaworthy and hurriedly prepared for postwar duties. On the 16th she sailed for Guam, thence to Darien, Manchuria, with Rear Adm. T. G. W. Settle on board. From Darien, where the evacuation of Allied POWs was supervised, she steamed to Tsingato, where Japanese vessels in that area were surrendered by Vice Admiral Kaneko. Louisville then escorted the surrendered vessels to Jinsen, Korea, after which she returned to China for further postwar duties at Chefoo. In mid-October, she joined the Yellow Sea force for abbreviated service before proceeding, via San Pedro, to Philadelphia, where she decommiasioned 17 June 1946 and entered the Atlantic Reserve Fleet. Remaining with that fleet for the next 13 years, Louisville was struck from the Navy list, 1 March 1969, and sold, 14 September, to the Marlene Blouse Corp. of New York.


USS Louisville (CA-28), Mare Island, 7 April 1945 - History

The Louisville (SSN 724), a Los Angeles-class submarine, was the fourth ship of the U.S. Navy to be named for Louisville, Kentucky. The contract to build her was awarded to the Electric Boat Division of General Dynamics Corporation in Groton, Connecticut, on February 11, 1982, and her keel was laid down on September 24, 1984. She was christened and launched on December 14, 1985. Mrs. Betty Ann McKee, wife of retired Adm. Kinnaird R. McKee, former Director of Naval Nuclear Propulsion, served as sponsor of the ship. Capt. Charles E. Ellis is the prospective commanding officer.

November 8, 1986 USS Louisville was commissioned during a ceremony at Naval Submarine Base New London in Groton, Conn.

In January and February 1987, the Lousville was underway for a shakedown cruise in the Puerto Rican Op. Area and AUTEC range. Port calls to Naval Station Roosevelt Roads, P.R., and Frederiksted, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, from Jan. 17-25.

March 16, USS Louisville arrived in Ireland Island for a week-long visit to Bermuda.

April 24, Cmdr. Charles B. Beckman relieved Capt. Charles E. Ellis as commanding officer of the SSN 724.

April 30, USS Louisville arrived in Electric Boat shipyard for a six-month Post Shakedown Availability (PSA).

February 16, 1988 The Louisville arrived at its new homeport of Naval Submarine Base Point Loma in San Diego, Calif., after a four-week transit from Groton, Conn.

From March 9 through April 24, USS Louisville participated in a Fleet Exercise (FLEETEX) 88-2.

July 5, The Los Angeles-class fast attack submarine departed San Diego to participate in Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) exercise, in the waters off Hawaii. Port call to Pearl Harbor from July 20-25.

August 26, USS Louisville anchored off the coast of Lahaina, Maui, for a two-day port visit. Returned home on Sept. 3 Underway for Pre-Overseas Movement (POM) workup and POM Certification from Sept. 30- Nov. 18.

December 1, USS Louisville departed NSB Point Loma for its maiden western Pacific deployment. Returned home on Aug. 27, 1989 Underway for FLEETEX from Sept. 15- Oct. 2 Underway for Independent Steaming Operations (ISO) from Oc. 27 through Dec. 22.

March 15, 1990 SSN 724 moored alongside USS McKee (AS 41) for a five-day port visit to Monterey, Calif.

April 3, Cmdr. Frank W. Stewart relieved Cmdr. Charles B. Beckman as the 3rd CO of USS Louisville.

April 4, The Louisville commenced a ten-week Selected Restricted Availability (SRA).

December 27, USS Louisville departed San Diego for a scheduled deployment as part of the USS America (CV 66) Battle Group.

January 19, 1991 USS Louisville made naval history by firing the first ever submerged Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) strike against Iraqi targets, from the Red Sea at 0930 local, in support of Operation Desert Storm.

February 13, The nuclear-powered submarine pulled into Apra Harbor, Guam, for a 12-day port call to get tender support services from USS Proteus (AS 19).

March 7, The Louisville pulled into HMAS Stirling at Garden Island, Australia, for a five-day port visit to Perth. Port call to Subic Bay, Philippines, from March 25-28 Another upkeep at Subic Bay from April 3-14.

April 28, USS Louisville returned to homeport after a four-month deployment in the U.S. 5th and 7th Fleet Areas of Responsibility (AoR).

From July 2? through Sept. 3, SSN 724 was underway for PCO operations. Port calls to Pearl Harbor (July 29- Aug. 3) and Lahaina (Aug. 16-19).

September 23, Cmdr. David A. Gove relieved Cmdr. Frank W. Stewart as CO of the Louisville.

In mid-October, USS Louisville was in a floating dry-dock Arco (ARDM 5) at NSB Point Loma for upkeep.

From Feb. 10-21, 1992, the Louisville was underway for Weapons Proficiency Firings and TRE. Underway for local operations from Feb. 24-28.

March 3, USS Louisville departed homeport for a Tiger Cruise en route to Alameda, Calif. Port visit to NAS Alameda from March 11-16 Returned to San Diego on March 20 Underway for FLEETEX 92-1 and ORSE from May 18- June 17 Port call to Naval Submarine Base Bangor, Wash., from June 3-5 Underway for RIMPAC '92 from June 23- July 23 Underway for routine training from Aug. 24-26 Underway for FLEETEX 92-2/POMCERT from Aug. 31- Oct. 9.

November 3, USS Louisville departed NSB Point Loma for a scheduled deployment as part of the USS Kitty Hawk (CV 63) BG.

November 25, The Los Angeles-class attack submarine pulled into Hong Kong for a five-day port visit. Port call to Singapore from Dec. 5-10 Operated in the Red Sea from Dec. 21- Jan. 1 Participated in a joint exercise SHAREM 102 in the Gulf of Oman, from Jan. 6-15, 1993.

February 4, USS Louisville pulled into Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, for a three-day port visit. She is the first U.S. Navy nuclear-powered submarine to arrive in this port.

February 7, The Louisville pulled into Jebel Ali, U.A.E, for a 17-day upkeep with USS Jason (AR 18).

March 5, USS Louisville arrived in Victoria, Seychelles, for a five-day port visit, the first by U.S. Navy SSN. Port visits to Phuket, Thailand, (March 24-29) Pattaya Beach (April 3-7) and Pearl Harbor (April 23-26).

May 4, USS Louisville returned to San Diego after a six-month deployment in the U.S. 5th and 7th Fleet AoR.

June 1, SSN 724 commenced a three-month Drydocking Selected Restricted Availability (DSRA). Underway for sea trials from Sept. 7-9 Underway for exercise Varsity Swimmer/Kernel Raider and Comprehensive Training Unit Exercise (COMPTUEX) 94-2 from Sept. 27- Oct. 14 Port call to Alameda, Calif., for Fleet Week from Oct. 9-13 Underway for TWP/Certification Firings from Oct. 18-20 Underway for FLEETEX 94-1A from Oct. 27- Nov. 7.

November 12, The Louisville departed Point Loma for a Dependent's Day Cruise. Underway for Material Inspection on Nov. 16 Underway for sea trials on Dec. 16 Underway for local operations from Jan. 3-7.

January 12, 1994 Cmdr. Christopher R. Earl relieved Cmdr. David A. Gove as commanding officer of the USS Louisville.

January 20, The Los Angeles-class attack submarine departed homeport for PCO operations. Port calls to Pearl Harbor from Feb. 4-5 and Feb. 12-17 Returned to San Diego on Feb. 22 Underway for TRE from Feb. 24-25 Underway for ISO from March 21-25 and April 6-11 In dry-dock Arco for Ion exchange resin discharge and replacement from April 14- June 23 Underway for sea trials from July 5-6 Underway for local operations from July 12-17, 19-27 and Aug. 3-10 Underway for ISO and ORSE from Aug. 12-19.

August 22, USS Louisville departed San Diego for a nine-day underway period to participate in FLEETEX 94-3A. Underway for FLEETEX 94-3B/3C and Type Commander Training from Sept. 12-24 Underway for Pre-DMP testing from Sept. 26-29 Underway for ASWEX 95-2 and COMPTUEX 95-1A from Nov. 2-15 Underway for sea trials from Dec. 7-8 Underway for Family Cruise and COMPTUEX 95-2 from Dec. 10-16.

February 23, 1995 USS Louisville arrived at its new homeport of Naval Station Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, after a nine-day transit from San Diego, Calif.

March 25, The Louisville commenced a 15-month Depot Modernization Period (DMP) at Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard. Departed Dry Dock #1 on Feb. 14, 1996 Underway for sea trials from June 30- July 6 Underway for local operation from July 23-26 Underway again on Aug. 1.

August 19, SSN 724 arrived at NSB Point Loma for a four-day port call. Port visit to Esquimalt, Canada, from Aug. 27-30 Returned home on Sept. 13 Underway for local operations from Sept. 16-19 and 25-26th Underway again from Oct. 31- Nov. 7, Nov. 25-27, Nov. 29- Dec. 5 and Dec. 9-18.

July 3, 1997 Cmdr. Joseph E. Skinner relieved Cmdr. Christopher R. Earl as the 6th CO of SSN 724 Underway for Prospective Commanding Officer (PCO) operations in July and August.

October ?, 1998 USS Louisville departed Pearl Harbor for a scheduled western Pacific deployment.

April 2, 1999 The Louisville returned home after a six-month deployment. Port calls to Yokosuka, Japan Hong Kong Apra Harbor, Guam and Brisbane, Australia.

May 3, The Los Angeles-class attack submarine moored at Naval Magazine West Loch, Oahu, for weapons offload. Underway for local operations from June 18-25 and July 6-14 Underway for sea trials from Aug. 30-31 Underway for local operations from Sept. 13-23 Underway for ORSE workup on Sept. 29 Underway for TB-29 testing from Nov. 4-16.

November 18, The Louisville anchored off Lahaina, Maui, for a four-day port visit. Weapons offload at West Loch on Nov. 24.

December 14, USS Louisville commenced a Selected Restricted Availability (SRA) at Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard.

February 18, 2000 Cmdr. Russell T. Janicke relieved Cmdr. Joseph E. Skinner as commanding officer of the Louisville.

January 3, 2001 The Louisville departed Naval Base Yokosuka, Japan, after a routine port visit. Port call at White Beach Naval Facility, Okinawa, from Feb. 4-6.

February 28, SSN 724 pulled into Singapore for a five-day port call. Another visit to Singapore from March 9-12.

March 18, USS Louisville arrived in Chinhae Naval Base, Republic of Korea, for a two-day port call. Inport Sasebo Naval Base, Japan, from March 22-26 Upkeep at Yokosuka from April 19-30.

May 9, The Louisville pulled into Gladstone, Australia, for a six-day port visit.

June 4, USS Louisville returned to Pearl Harbor after a six-month western Pacific deployment.

July 12, SSN 724 anchored off Lahaina, Maui, for a four-day port visit. Underway for local operations from July 19-28 and Oct. 12-20.

October 25, USS Louisvilled arrived at NSB Point Loma for a week-long port call before participating in JTFEX in the SOCAL Op. Area. Inport San Diego from Nov. 8-13 Returned home on Nov. 19 Underway for TRE from Nov. 26-30 Underway for DESRONEX from Dec. 3-5 Underway for INSURV from Dec. 10-12.

From Jan. 7-11, 2002, the Louisville was underway for Independent Steaming Exercises (ISE). Underway for sea trials from March 13-15 Underway for local operations from March 25-29 and April 2-4 Underway for ORSE preps. from April 15-25 Underway for local operations from May 13-17.

May 24, Michael E. Jabaley, Jr., relieved Cmdr. Russell T. Janicke as CO of the Louisville during a change-of-command ceremony on board the sub.

May 28, The Louisville departed homeport for a six-day underway to conduct TACDEVEX with USS Cheyenne (SSN 773) and VLF-A tracking exercise with USS Olympia (SSN 717) Underway for sea trilas and ISE on July 20 Underway for POMCERT from Aug. 5-9.

September 10, USS Louisville departed Naval Station Pearl Harbor for a scheduled western Pacific deployment.

September 17, The Los Angeles-class attack submarine pulled into Yokosuka, Japan, for a week-long port call to get tender support services from USS Frank Cable (AS 40). Brief stop in Sasebo, Japan, on Sept. 26 to debark COMSUBGRU 7.

September 27, SSN 724 arrived in Chinhae, Republic of Korea, for a five-day port visit.

October 5, The Louisville pulled again into Chinhae for another five-day port call after participating in a submarine exercise with the ROKS Lee Chun (SS 062), from Oct. 3-4.

October 19, USS Louisville departed White Beach, Okinawa, Japan, after a four-day port call.

November 25, USS Louisville arrived again at Naval Base Yokosuka for a two-week maintenance period after participating in annual exercise (ANNUALEX) from Nov. 12-22.

January 18, 2003 SSN 724 pulled into Apra Harbor, Guam, for an 11-day port call to get tender support services from USS Frank Cable.

March 21, Thirty U.S. Navy and coalition warships, including USS Louisville, currently assigned to Naval Forces Central Command launched Tomahawk Land Attack Missiles (TLAMs) during military operations to disarm Iraq.

April 21, The Los Angeles-class attack submarine arrived in HMAS Stirling at Garden Island, Australia, for a week-long visit to Perth.

May 13, USS Louisville returned to Pearl Harbor after an eight-month deployment in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom.

July 22, The Louisville entered the Dry Dock 2 at Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard for a six-month Drydocking Selected Restricted Availability (DSRA). The sub departed dry-dock on Nov. 8 Returned to Naval Station Pearl Harbor on Dec. 24.

June 21, SSN 724 departed NSB Point Loma for routine trainnig in the SOCAL Op. Area.

August 13, Capt. L. David Marquet relieved Capt. William Toti as Commander, Submarine Squadron (SUBRON) 3, aboard the USS Louisville at Naval Station Pearl Harbor.

March 14, 2005 USS Louisville is currently participating in a Joint Task Force Exercise (JTFEX) off the coast of southern California, as part of the USS Nimitz (CVN 68) Carrier Strike Group.

September 22, The Louisville arrived in Yokosauka, Japan, for a six-day port call.

November 16, USS Louisville returned to homeport following a six-month deployment in the western Pacific. The sub also visited Brisbane, Australia Guam and Saipan. In June, she participated in exercise Talisman Sabre off the coast of Australia and Ship Anti-Submarine Warfare Readiness and Evaluation Measurement (SHAREM) exercises with the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force.

February 10, 2006 USS Louisville returned to Naval Station Pearl Harbor after completing routine trainings in Pacific Ocean.

May 2, USS Louisville, commanded by Cmdr. David Kirk, departed Pearl Harbor for a surge western Pacific deployment.

June 28, The Louisville returned to homeport after completing a two-month underway period.

January 4, 2007 USS Louisville departed Naval Station Pearl Harbor for an 18-month overhaul and modernization period at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery, Maine.

February 9, SSN 724 recently arrived in Naval Submarine Base New London in Groton, Conn., for a brief port call.

January 18, 2009 The Louisville departed Portsmouth Naval Shipyard after successfully completing an Engineered Overhaul (EOH), well ahead of the chief of naval operations (CNO) mandated completion date of Feb. 24.

January 8, 2010 Cmdr. Lee P. Sisco relieved Cmdr. John Sager as commanding officer of SSN 724.

April 26, USS Louisville departed Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam for a scheduled western Pacific deployment.

May 5, The Los Angeles-class attack submarine moored at Berth 13, Fleet Activities Yokosuka, Japan, for a routine port call. Brief stop at Sasebo on Sept. 8.

October 29, USS Louisville returned to homeport after a six-month deployment.

February 7, 2012 USS Louisville departed Pearl Harbor for a scheduled western Pacific deployment.

April 3, The Louisville arrived in Sepanggar Naval Base for a port visit to Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, and to get tender support services from USS Emory S. Land (AS 39) Brief stop in Okinawa on April 16.

April 18, USS Louisville arrived in Fleet Activities Saebo, Japan, for a week-long upkeep. Brief stop at White Beach, Okinawa, on April 28.

May 11, SSN 724 pulled into Apra Harbor, Guam, for a routine port call.

June 25, USS Louisville pulled into Subic Bay, Republic of the Philippines, for a five-day port call.

July 20, The Louisville arrived at Fleet Activities Yokosuka, Japan, for a week-long port visit.

August 8, USS Louisville returned to homeport after a six-month deployment.

September 6, Cmdr. Robert D. Figgs relieved Cmdr. Lee P. Sisco as CO of the Louisville during a change-of-command ceremony aboard the sub at Pearl Harbor.

June 6, 2014 USS Louisville recently anchored off the coast of Lahaina, Hawaii, for a scheduled visit to the Island of Maui.

October 10, USS Louisville departed Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam for a scheduled western Pacific deployment.

October 20, SSN 724 moored at Berth 13S in Fleet Activities Yokosuka, Japan, for a week-long port call.

December 5, The Louisville moored at Changi Naval Base in Singapore for a three-day liberty port visit.

January 6, 2015 USS Louisville moored at Navy Pier, White Beach Naval Facility in Okinawa, Japan, for a three-day port visit Brief stop at Okinawa on Jan. 12 Upkeep in Yokosuka from Feb. 19 through March 4.

April 10, USS Louisville moored at Wharf S1A in Pearl Harbor after completing a six-month deployment.

May 12, Cmdr. David S. Cox relieved Cmdr. Robert D. Figgs as CO of the Louisville during a change-of-command ceremony on board the sub.

September 30, 2016 USS Louisville departed Pearl Harbor for a scheduled western Pacific deployment.

October 12, The Louisville moored at Berth 13S in Fleet Activities Yokosuka, Japan, for a three-day port visit Brief stop off Chinhae Naval Base, ROK, for personnel transfer on Dec. 3 Moored at Somo Do Pier 22 in Chinhae Naval Base from Dec. 8-13 Brief stop in Sasebo, Japan, on Dec. 16 and Jan. 15.

February 14, 2017 USS Louisville moored at Alava Pier in Subic Bay, Republic of the Philippines, for a liberty port call Brief stop off Sasebo on March 7 Brief stop off White Beach, Okinawa, on March 13.

March 23, USS Louisville moored at Wharf S1B on Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam following a six-month deployment.

March 27, SSN 724 moored at Wharf W5, Naval Magazine Lualualei to offload ammunition Moored at Pier S8 on March 29.

September 7, The Louisville moored at Pier S9 on Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam after underway for routine training.

October 20, Cmdr. Robert Rose relieved Cmdr. David S. Cox as CO of the Louisville during a change-of-command ceremony on board the sub.

March 30, 2018 USS Louisville is currently moored at Wharf Y2 on Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam Moored at Wharf W4 for ammo onload on April 9 Moored at Wharf S20 on April 12 Moored at Wharf W4 again on April 30 Underway on May 2 Moored at Wharf S20 on May 8 Moved to Wharf S12 on May 1? Moved to Wharf S1B on May 31 Underway again on June 15.?

September 24, The Louisville moored at Wharf S12 after underway in the Hawaiian Op. Area Moored at Wharf W1 for ammo onload on Sept. 27 Moored at Wharf S1A on Sept. 28.

October 2, USS Louisville departed Pearl Harbor for a scheduled Middle East deployment.

From December 14-18, the Louisville participated in a Ship Anti-Submarine Warfare Readiness and Evaluation Measurement (SHAREM) 195 exercise, while underway off the coast of Oman.

January ?, 2019 USS Louisville moored at Quay 9 in Port of Jebel Ali, United Arab Emirates, for a liberty visit to Dubai.

April 9, The Louisville participated in a PHOTOEX with the USNS Guadalupe (T-AO 200), HTMS Bhumibol Adulyadej (FFG 471), HTMS Taksin (FF 422) and HTMS Long Lom (FS 533), while underway west of Phuket, Thailand, as part of the anti-submarine warfare (ASW) exercise Guardian Sea 2019.

May 2, USS Louisville moored at Wharf S12 on Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam following a seven-month deployment.

June 17, The Louisville moored at Wharf W4, Naval Magazine Lualualei to offload ammunition Moored at Wharf S10 on June 20 Underway again on July 8.?

August 30, The Louisville moored at Pier S9 on Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam after a one-day underway off the coast of Oahu Underway en route to Bremerton, Wash., on Oct. 7.

October 22, USS Louisville moored at Berth 4, Delta Pier on Naval Base Kitsap-Bremerton to commence a year-long inactivation process.

February 21, 2020 Cmdr. Christopher V. Brown relieved Cmdr. Robert Rose as the last CO of Louisville during a change-of-command ceremony at the Puget Sound Navy Museum in Bremerton.

July 9, The Louisville entered the Dry Dock #5 at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS&IMF).

August 6, USS Louisville is inactivated and placed in Reserve (Stand Down) status.

March 9, 2021 USS Louisville was officially decommissioned during a ceremony near Dry Dock #5 on Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, after more than 34-years of active service.


Mục lục

Vốn vẫn bị hạn chế về trọng lượng choán nước và cỡ pháo bởi Hiệp ước Hải quân Washington, nhưng mang nhiều đặc tính cải tiến so với lớp Pensacola dẫn trước, lớp Northampton mang chín khẩu pháo 8 in (200 mm) trên ba tháp pháo ba nòng, gồm hai phía mũi và một phía đuôi. Đây là cách sắp xếp tối ưu mà sau này được tiếp nối bởi mọi lớp tàu tuần dương hạng nặng khác của Hoa Kỳ.

Louisville được đặt lườn như là chiếc CL-28 vào ngày 4 tháng 7 năm 1929 tại Xưởng hải quân Puget Sound ở Bremerton, Washington. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 1 tháng 9 năm 1930, được đỡ đầu bởi cô Jane Brown Kennedy, [Note 1] và được cho nhập biên chế vào ngày 15 tháng 1 năm 1931 dưới quyền chỉ huy của hạm trưởng, Đại tá Hải quân Edward John Marquart. [5] [6]

Những năm giữa hai cuộc thế chiến Sửa đổi

Chuyến đi chạy thử máy của Louisville kéo dài suốt từ mùa Hè đến mùa Đông năm 1931, đưa nó từ Bremerton đến thành phố New York ngang qua kênh đào Panama. Trong giai đoạn này, con tàu được xếp lại lớp thành một tàu tuần dương hạng nặng với ký hiệu lườn CA-28 vào ngày 1 tháng 7 năm 1931 theo quy ước mới của Hiệp ước Hải quân London. [6] [5] Quay trở về từ New York, chiếc tàu tuần dương tham gia cuộc tập trận Vấn đề Hạm đội năm 1932 trước khi tiến hành huấn luyện tác xạ tại khu vực San Pedro-San Diego thuộc California. Trong mùa Đông năm 1933, nó đi đến Hawaii thực hành trước khi quay về San Pedro, nơi nó trở thành trường huấn luyện phòng không. Vào tháng 4 năm 1934, Louisville khởi hành từ San Diego thực hiện chuyến đi kéo dài chín tháng viếng thăm nhiều cảng tại Trung Mỹ, khu vực Caribbe, dọc theo vùng vịnh Mexico và bờ Đông Hoa Kỳ. Quay trở lại California vào cuối mùa Thu, Louisville tham gia các đợt thực hành tác xạ và chiến thuật cho đến mùa Xuân năm 1935, rồi lên đường đi Dutch Harbor, Alaska, rồi từ đây đi đến Trân Châu Cảng tham dự tập trận hạm đội. [5]

Trong hai năm tiếp theo, nó hoạt động ngoài khơi khu vực Bờ Tây Hoa Kỳ, tham gia các cuộc tập trận hạm đội năm 1936 và 1937, ghé thăm hữu nghị các cảng châu Mỹ La Tinh cùng các hoạt động thực hành tại chỗ. Vào tháng 1 năm 1938, Louisville bắt đầu một chuyến đi kéo dài tại Thái Bình Dương đưa nó đến Hawaii, Samoa, Australia và Tahiti trước khi quay trở về Trân Châu Cảng tham gia tập trận Vấn đề Hạm đội. Trong khi ở tại cảng Sydney, thủy thủ đoàn của Louisville đã tham gia cứu hộ một số hành khách trên một chiếc phà tham quan đã bị lật khi hầu hết hành khách dồn sang một bên mạn vẫy chào chiếc tàu tuần dương. [5]

Louisville tham gia các cuộc tập trận hạm đội tại vùng biển Caribbe trong mùa Đông năm 1939. Nó tiếp tục hoạt động tại vùng biển ấm cho đến tháng 5 năm đó, khi nó quay về khu vực Bờ Tây. Sau cuộc tập trận Vấn đề Hạm đội ngoài khơi Hawaii vào mùa Thu năm đó, Louisville rời Long Beach, California cho một chuyến đi kéo dài ngang qua kênh đào Panama đến khu vực phía Đông của Nam Mỹ. Tại Bahia, Brasil, nó nhận được lệnh tiếp tục vượt Đại Tây Dương đi đến Simonstown, Nam Phi. [5]

Như một tàu trung lập, Louisville treo cờ Hoa Kỳ đi băng qua vùng biển bị đe dọa bởi đầy dẫy các tàu ngầm U-boat của Đức quốc xã. Tại Simonstown, nó nhận lên tàu một lô hàng đặc biệt là số vàng trị giá 148 triệu Đô-la Mỹ được Anh Quốc ký thác tại Hoa Kỳ. Sau đó nó lên đường đi thành phố New York giao chuyến hàng quý giá rồi quay trở lại Thái Bình Dương.

Chiến tranh Thế giới thứ hai Sửa đổi

Vào lúc xảy ra cuộc tấn công Trân Châu Cảng ngày 7 tháng 12 năm 1941, Louisville đang hộ tống những chiếc A. T. ScottPresident Coolidge trên đường từ đảo Tarakan, Đông Borneo quay về Trân Châu Cảng. Nó tiếp tục đi đến Hawaii, dừng chân một lúc để quan sát những thiệt hại rồi tiếp tục đi đến California. Tại đây nó gia nhập Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 17 và khởi hành từ San Diego vào ngày 6 tháng 1 năm 1942 đi đến Samoa thuộc Mỹ, và cho đổ bộ lực lượng xuống đây vào ngày 22 tháng 1. Hoạt động tác chiến đầu tiên của nó trong cuộc chiến tranh diễn ra trên chặng quay về, khi nó tham gia vào cuộc không kích trong các ngày 1 và 2 tháng 2 lên các quần đảo Gilbert và Marshall. Trong hoạt động này, nó bị mất một trong các thủy phi cơ của nó. [5]

Sau một chặng dừng ngắn tại Trân Châu Cảng, Louisville tiến hành tuần tra tại khu vực quần đảo Ellice giúp bảo vệ các căn cứ Mỹ gần đó. Đến đầu tháng 3 nó gia nhập Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 119, một lực lượng tàu sân bay, và bắt đầu các hoạt động nhằm ngăn chặn việc tiến quân của Nhật Bản dọc theo quần đảo Bismarck và quần đảo Solomon. Lực lượng này trong một số ngày đã di chuyển trong khu vực Salamaua-Lae-Rabaul, tiến hành không kích nhiều mục tiêu tại đây. [5]

Sau chiến dịch này, Louisville quay về Trân Châu Cảng, rồi tiếp tục đến Xưởng hải quân Mare Island tại San Francisco, nơi dàn hỏa lực của nó được tăng cường. Ngày 31 tháng 5, nó lên đường đi đến quần đảo Aleut gia nhập Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 8. Trong giai đoạn mà Nhật Bản dành ra những nỗ lực to lớn để xác lập và củng cố điểm cực Bắc của "vành đai phòng thủ" ở khu vực Tây quần đảo Aleut, vai trò chính của chiếc tàu tuần dương là hộ tống vận tải, nhưng cũng tham gia nả pháo xuống đảo Kiska.

Vào ngày 11 tháng 11, chiếc tàu tuần dương rời San Francisco hướng đến Trân Châu Cảng, ghé lại đây vài ngày trước khi tiếp tục hướng đến khu vực Nam Thái Bình Dương, hộ tống cho nhiều đoàn tàu vận tải chuyển binh lính đi đến tận New Caledonia. Sau đó nó quay lên phía Bắc đến Espiritu Santo để gia nhập Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 67, lúc này đang đối đầu căng thẳng với lực lượng Nhật Bản tại quần đảo Solomon. Vào ngày 29 tháng 1 năm 1943, nó tham gia trận chiến đảo Rennell, trận cuối cùng trong số bảy trận hải chiến của Chiến dịch Guadalcanal. Sau đó nó hoạt động ở phía Đông hòn đảo cho đến khi hoàn toàn kiểm soát được tình hình. [5]

Vào tháng 4, Louisville đi ngang qua Trân Châu Cảng hướng đến quần đảo Aleut. Tại đây, trong thành phần của Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 16, chiếc tàu tuần dương hỗ trợ cho cuộc đổ bộ và chiếm đóng đảo Attu từ ngày 11 đến ngày 30 tháng 5, rồi tham gia bắn pháo chuẩn bị cho việc đổ bộ lên Kiska. [5]

Sau khi lực lượng Nhật Bản buộc phải triệt thoái hoàn toàn khỏi khu vực quần đảo Aleut, chiếc tàu tuần dương thực hiện hộ tống vận tải tại khu vực Bắc Thái Bình Dương. Đến tháng 1 năm 1944, Louisville quay trở lại khu vực Nam Thái Bình Dương như là soái hạm của Chuẩn Đô đốc Jesse B. Oldendorf, chỉ huy lực lượng hỗ trợ hỏa lực hải pháo cho các chiến dịch đổ bộ sắp đến. Tại quần đảo Marshall vào ngày 29 tháng 1, nó bắn pháo xuống đảo san hô Wotje, về phía Tây Kwajalein rồi sau đó tập trung hỏa lực xuống sân bay và các điểm tập trung quân của đối phương tại Roi và Namur trên điểm cực Nam của đảo san hô, góp phần vào việc chiếm đóng thành công những đảo này vào ngày 3 tháng 2. Hai tuần sau, Louisville lại dẫn đầu lực lượng hỗ trợ hỏa lực nả pháo xuống Eniwetok, nơi được chiếm đóng vào ngày 22 tháng 2. [5]

Sau trận Eniwetok, Louisville gia nhập Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 58, rồi cùng các tàu sân bay nhanh tấn công các vị trí của quân Nhật tại Palau trong tháng 3, và bắn phá Truk cùng Sawatan trong tháng 4. Đến tháng 6, nó chuẩn bị cho cuộc đổ bộ lên quần đảo Mariana, và một lần nữa Louisville lại dẫn đầu lực lượng hỗ trợ hỏa lực trong các chiến dịch bắn pháo bắt đầu với Saipan nơi nó bắn pháo liên tục trong 11 ngày đầu tiên của trận chiến tại đây, tiếp nối bởi Tinian, và kết thúc bằng cuộc đổ bộ lên Guam. [5]

Sau chiến dịch quần đảo Mariana, Louisville được cho rút lui về tuyến sau cho đến giữa tháng 9, khi nó đi đến quần đảo Palaus tiến hành bắn pháo chuẩn bị cho cuộc tấn công Peleliu. Sau khi các căn cứ tiền phương được xây dựng và củng cố vững chắc, các công việc chuẩn bị cuối cùng cho cuộc tấn công Philippine được tiến hành. Ngày 18 tháng 10, Louisville tiến vào vịnh Leyte bắn pháo xuống các căn cứ của quân Nhật trên bờ. Bảy ngày sau, nó có mặt trong trận chiến vịnh Leyte vĩ đại, tham gia cuộc đối đầu cuối cùng trong lịch sử giữa các thiết giáp hạm khi Lực lượng Phía Nam của Nhật Bản tìm cách vượt qua eo biển Surigao xâm nhập vào vịnh Leyte từ phía Nam. [5]

Sau các hoạt động tại Leyte, Louisville tái gia nhập lực lượng các tàu sân bay nhanh giờ đây dưới tên gọi Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 38, và tham gia các cuộc tấn công chuẩn bị vào các vị trí đối phương tại Luzon. Vào dịp đầu năm mới 1945, Louisville đang trên đường hướng đến vịnh Lingayen. Đang khi trên đường đi trong ngày 5 và 6 tháng 1, nó bị hai máy bay tấn công cảm tử kamikaze Yokosuka D4Y đánh trúng. Cho dù bị hư hại đáng kể, chiếc tàu tuần dương tiếp tục nả pháo xuống các bãi đổ bộ và bắn rơi nhiều máy bay đối phương trước khi rút lui quay về Xưởng hải quân Mare Island để sửa chữa. [5]

Sau khi công việc sửa chữa hoàn tất vào mùa Xuân, Louisville quay trở lại khu vực Tây Thái Bình Dương gia nhập Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 54 để hỗ trợ cho lực lượng trên bờ trong trận Okinawa. Vào ngày 5 tháng 6, một lần nữa nó lại bị một máy bay kamikaze đánh trúng, nhưng nó đã có thể quay trở lại vị trí chiến đấu vào ngày 9 tháng 6 hoàn thành vai trò được giao cho đến khi được cho rút lui về Trân Châu Cảng để sửa chữa vào ngày 15 tháng 6. [5]

Sau chiến tranh Sửa đổi

Công việc sửa chữa nó hoàn tất vào ngày 14 tháng 8 cũng đúng vào lúc chiến tranh kết thúc, Louisville sẵn sàng đảm nhận những nhiệm vụ sau chiến tranh. Vào ngày 16 tháng 8, nó khởi hành từ Guam đi đến Đại Liên thuộc Mãn Châu cùng với Chuẩn Đô đốc T. G. W. Settle trên tàu. Từ đây, nơi công việc hồi hương những tù binh chiến tranh Đồng Minh được giám sát chu đáo, nó khởi hành đi Thanh Đảo, nơi các tàu chiến Nhật Bản trong khu vực này dưới quyền Phó Đô đốc Kaneko đầu hàng. Louisville sau đó hộ tống các con tàu đầu hàng đi đến Jinsen thuộc Triều Tiên trước khi nó quay lại Trung Quốc cho các vai trò sau chiến tranh tại Yên Đài. Vào giữa tháng 10, nó tham gia lực lượng tại Hoàng Hải một thời gian ngắn trước khi quay về San Pedro, rồi được điều về Philadelphia, nơi nó được cho xuất biên chế vào ngày 17 tháng 6 năm 1946 và được đưa về Hạm đội Dự bị Đại Tây Dương. Bị bỏ không trong thành phần dự bị suốt 13 năm tiếp theo, Louisville cuối cùng được rút tên khỏi danh sách Đăng bạ Hải quân vào ngày 1 tháng 3 năm 1959, và được bán vào ngày 14 tháng 9 cùng năm cho hãng Marlene Blouse Corporation tại New York để tháo dỡ. [5] [6]

Louisville được tặng thưởng mười ba Ngôi sao Chiến trận do thành tích phục vụ trong Chiến tranh Thế giới thứ hai. [6]


Contents

Interwar period USS Louisville (CA-28)_section_1

Louisville's shakedown cruise, running through the summer, fall, and winter of 1931, took her from Bremerton to New York City via the Panama Canal. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_8

Returning from New York, she participated in the 1932 fleet problems before commencing gunnery exercises in the San Pedro-San Diego area. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_9

During the winter of 1933, she steamed for Hawaii, returning after exercises to San Pedro where she became a schoolship for anti-aircraft (AA) training. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_10

In April 1934, the cruiser steamed out of San Diego to begin a nine-month voyage "showing the flag" at various ports in Central America, the Caribbean Sea, and along the gulf and east coasts. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_11

Arriving back in California in late fall, Louisville participated in gunnery and tactical exercises until the spring of 1935, when she departed for Dutch Harbor, Alaska, and, thence, to Pearl Harbor to take part in fleet problems. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_12

For the next two years, she operated off the West Coast, participating in the 1936 and 1937 fleet problems, making good will calls at Latin American ports and undergoing local training operations. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_13

On 16 July 1937 at about 1200 hours, she collided with the American halibut-fishing boat Alten in the harbor at Ketchikan, Territory of Alaska she and a United States Coast Guard Cutter, USCGC Cyane, assisted Alten's crew of 11 and there was no loss of life, although Alten was badly damaged. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_14

In January 1938, Louisville began a long Pacific cruise which took her to Hawaii, Samoa, Australia, and Tahiti before returning to Pearl Harbor for fleet problems. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_15

While in Sydney, Australia, the crew of the Louisville rescued a number of passengers from a sightseeing ferryboat which had capsized and sank when most of the passengers crowded on the open top deck ran to the rail to wave the cruiser off. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_16

Nineteen of the ferry's passengers died. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_17

The winter of 1939 found Louisville participating in fleet exercises in the Caribbean. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_18

She operated in these waters until May, when she returned to the west coast. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_19

After fleet problems off Hawaii that autumn, Louisville departed Long Beach, California, for an extended cruise through the Panama Canal to eastern South America. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_20

At Bahia, Brazil, she received orders to proceed to Simonstown, South Africa. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_21

As a neutral ship, Louisville traveled the U-boat-infested waters with her American flag spotlighted. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_22

At Simonstown, she received $148 million in British gold for deposit in the United States. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_23

She then sailed for New York City, delivered her precious cargo and returned to the Pacific. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_24

World War II USS Louisville (CA-28)_section_2

On 7 December 1941, Louisville, escorting A. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_25 T. Scott and President Coolidge, was en route from Tarakan, East Borneo, to Pearl Harbor. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_26

She continued on to Hawaii, stopped briefly to survey the damage and proceeded on to California. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_27

There she joined Task Force 17 (TF 17) and steamed from San Diego on 6 January 1942, for Samoa, landing troops there on 22 January. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_28

Her first offensive operation of the war came on her return trip when she took part in carrier plane raids on 1–2 February on the Gilbert and Marshall Islands. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_29

During this action, one of her scout planes went missing and the pilot and aircrewman were lost. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_30

After a short stay at Pearl Harbor, Louisville commenced patrolling the Ellice Islands area to help protect American bases in that vicinity. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_31

Early in March she joined TF 119, a carrier force, and began operations to stem the Japanese advance down the Bismarck Archipelago and the Solomons. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_32

This force steamed in the Salamaua-Lae-Rabaul sector for a number of days, making airstrikes on numerous objectives. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_33

Following this operation, Louisville returned to Pearl Harbor, proceeding from there to Mare Island Navy Yard, San Francisco, where her anti-aircraft armament was increased with additional 1.1 in and 20 mm cannon fitted. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_34

On 31 May, she steamed for the Aleutians to join TF 8 to counter the enemy forces expected to be in the area. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_35

Fortunately for Louisville, the Japanese carrier force did not locate her and the other cruisers during the attacks on Dutch Harbor, which coincided with the Battle of Midway. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_36

Her duties, during this period of Japan's strongest efforts to establish the northern end of her "ribbon defense" in the western Aleutians, were primarily those of convoy escort, but included shore bombardment of Kiska Island. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_37

On 11 November, the cruiser departed San Francisco for Pearl Harbor, continuing, after a few days on to the South Pacific, escorting several troop transports as far as New Caledonia. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_38

She then proceeded north to Espiritu Santo to Join TF 67, which was then battling Japanese forces in the Solomons. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_39

On 29 January 1943, Louisville participated In the Battle off Rennell Island, the last of the seven naval battles for Guadalcanal, after which she operated east of the island until it was entirely secured. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_40

In April, Louisville steamed, via Pearl Harbor, to the Aleutians. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_41

There, as a unit of TF 16, the cruiser covered the assault and occupation of Attu (11–30 May) and participated In the pre-invasion bombardment of Kiska in July. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_42

After the latter was evacuated by the Japanese, she conducted escort of convoy operations in the northern Pacific. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_43

In August 1943 she proceeded to the Mare Island Navy Yard for an overhaul to her machinery and alterations. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_44

Louisville was in overhaul at Mare Island from 8 October until 24 December 1943. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_45

Like her sister ships her forward mast was cut down and her aft mainmast was removed and replaced with a lighter tripod just aft of the second funnel. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_46

Louisville had the camouflage measure 32-6D paint scheme added and two new mark 34 main battery directors installed. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_47

The 1.1 in AA cannon mounts were removed and replaced with several quad 40 mm Bofors mounts along with numerous 20 mm cannon. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_48

Improved radars and flagship spaces were also added. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_49

Following this work in January 1944, Louisville returned to the southern Pacific as the flagship of Rear Admiral J. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_50 B. Oldendorf, who was to command the naval gunfire support groups through the amphibious operations ahead. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_51

In the Marshalls at the end of the month, she bombarded Wotje Atoll, west of Kwajalein, on 29 January. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_52

Then the cruiser turned her guns on the airfield and troop concentrations on Roi and Namur on the southern tip of the atoll, contributing to the conquest of those islands by 3 February. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_53

During this campaign, while waiting bombardment further targets an 8-inch 55 caliber shell fired from USS Indianapolis ricocheted off the island to explode a near miss alongside Louisville starboard side causing heavy pieces of shrapnel which damaged the chiefs quarters, pierced the bulkhead, and turret No. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_54

3 – 8-inch gun had shrapnel damage on the tips of the barrels- no injuries. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_55

Two weeks later, Louisville led the gunfire support group into action at Eniwetok. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_56

After Eniwetok, Louisville joined TF 58, and with the fast aircraft carriers struck Japanese installations in the Palaus, in March, and bombarded Truk and Sawatan in April. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_57

June brought preparations for the invasion of the greater Marianas, and again Louisville was the leading unit in shore bombardment operations beginning with Saipan, where she fired continuously for the first 11 days of that engagement, through the shelling of Tinian, and ending with the assault on Guam. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_58

Louisville became the first large US ship to enter Philippine waters since 12 December 1941. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_59

On October 21, 1944, while Louisville was bombarding Leyte she was hit by the kamikaze plane shrapnel killing one crewmember. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_60

On 25 October 1944, she was in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, participating in the last engagement of a battleline as the Japanese southern force attempted to force its way into Leyte Gulf through Surigao Strait. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_61

Admiral Oldendorf deployed the American battleline across the strait and PT boats and destroyers on either side of the narrow body of water, defeating the Japanese ships as they passed through the strait. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_62

Following Leyte operations, Louisville rejoined the fast carriers now designated TF 38, and participated in pre-invasion strikes against the enemy on Luzon. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_63

By the new year, 1945, Louisville was headed towards Lingayen Gulf. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_64

While en route on 5–6 January, two kamikazes headed for and scored on her. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_65

The first kamikaze on 5 January 1945 hit the No. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_66

2 main battery 8-inch 55 caliber gun knocking it completely out of commission killing one man with 17 injured/burned including Captain Rex LeGrande Hicks. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_67

The second kamikaze on 6 January 1945 hit the starboard side signal bridge. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_68

Rear Admiral Theodore E. Chandler, commander of Cruiser Division 4 (CruDiv 4) was fatally injured helping the sailors man handle the fire hoses to put out the massive flames during the latter attack, and died of his wounds the following day. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_69

Commander (later Rear Admiral) William P. McCarty took control of Louisville and managed recovery efforts in fighting fires and restoration of equipment, for which he was awarded the Silver Star. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_70

42 crewmen were also killed and 125 or more men were wounded. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_71

Bridge knocked out of commission at the time forced switch of control to battery no. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_72

2 by second smoke stack. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_73

Despite extensive damage, the cruiser shelled the beaches and shot down several enemy planes before withdrawing on 9 January 1945 and proceeding to Mare Island Navy Yard for repairs. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_74

Her repairs completed on April 10, 1945, Louisville delivered Admiral Halsey's 50 officers and 100 staff to the battleship Missouri at Guam and Louisville returned to the Pacific to join TF 54 in providing gunfire support for ground forces on Okinawa. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_75

On June 5, 1945, she was again hit by a kamikaze(initially identified as a friendly plane). USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_76

Four twin 20 AA cannon opened up to set the kamikaze ablaze prior to hitting Louisville which killed eight sailors on a quad 40 mm AA gun mount, injured 45 sailors, bent the number 1 smoke stack and cut Louisville's seaplane off and left only the pontoon on the catapult. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_77

Louisville was back on the gun line by 9 June, to remain on station until ordered back to Pearl Harbor for repairs on 15 June. USS Louisville (CA-28)_sentence_78


USS Louisville (CA-28), Mare Island, 7 April 1945 - History

Source: Office of Naval Records and History
Ships&rsquo Histories Branch
Navy Department

This is the story of a combat escort carrier, the only combat carrier to escape damage from the enemy for 38 straight months. It attempts to take you with CHENANGO and her pilots on eleven combat operations. It tries to show you how her crew, her planes, and ship herself contributed to the defeat of our enemies in both oceans. It tells you how she got those Jap flags on her bridge and leaves to your imagination the thousands of hours of routine, unexciting, backbreaking work necessary to sail her nearly nine times around the world----218,000 miles.

Her story begins two-and-a-half years before Pearl Harbor. CHENANGO was a pre-war vessel. She was launched on April Fool&rsquos Day, 1939, as the Eastern States Standard Oil Tanker, ESSO NEW ORLEANS. Her keel had been laid nine months before from blueprints which had been

Statistics .

STANDARD DISPLACEMENT: 12,000 tons
LENGTH OVERALL: 553 feet
BEAM: 75 feet
SPEED: 18 knots
COMPLEMENT: 1000 plus
ARMAMENT: Two 5&rdquo/38 Cal. dual purpose guns-- plus smaller anti-aircraft batteries
AIRCRAFT: 21 plus

Compiled: 15 October 1947
Restencilled: 26 June 1950

jointly approved by Standard Oil of New Jersey, the United States Maritime Commission, and United States Navy. ESSO NEW ORLEANS was designed to go to war as a Navy Fleet Oiler whenever she was needed.

On 20 April 1941 the Navy took NEW ORLEANS over and began to operate her in the Naval Transportation Service as USS CHENANGO (AO 31). CHENANGO was named after the Chenango River in New York State. Chenango is an Indian name meaning &ldquoBig Bull.&rdquo

For 2 July 1941 until 16 March 1942 CHENANGO steamed 47,000 miles through the waters of the Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic Coast, Caribbean Sea and the Pacific as far as Honolulu before coming home by way of Aruba, Netherlands West Indies. It was at Aruba that the legend of her luck arose. Nazi torpedoes had already missed her twice. She&rsquod had a close call when the tanker dead ahead of her in convoy suddenly exploded and sank flaming in the night. She reached Aruba low on fuel and wormed her way to shelter in a harbor jammed with defenseless shipping which Nazi torpedoes and shellfire soon began to smash and burn all around her. CHENANGO was untouched!

At the termination of this period, CHENANGO returned to the States (Staten Island, New York) where she was converted into an aircraft carrier, the second of four ships in her class. Commissioning were brightened by the presence of Madeline Carroll, the motion picture star, and Captain (now Commodore) Ben H. Wyatt, USN, accepted the ship in commission on 19 September 1942, at a time when our floating airfields were frighteningly low. Her first carrier job was to ferry 78 P-40 fighters over to North Africa through the sub-infested Atlantic. Reports of her luck on this operation were slightly exaggerated, although ships were sunk fore and aft of her and on either side--four in all.

She arrived and waited patiently off Port Lyautey for our forces to get an airfield so she could send her cargo flying ashore, delivered 77 P-40s (one plane was splashed before it reached shore) and then went into Casablanca Harbor. Here she sat while 21 destroyers drank half her three million gallons of fuel oil and Nazi air and underwater raiders swarmed the area.

Nightfall soon brought to a halt the major part of the aerial warfare, but the enemy subs continued their harassing of Allied Forces. A CHENANGO escort that had been detached to pick up survivors of a torpedoed tanker was itself torpedoed immediately after leaving the security of the submarine nets, which had been flung across the mouth of the Casablanca Harbor.

The next morning, CHENANGO set out for home. Three days out of Casablanca she ran into a hurricane. By the next morning her compartments amidships and forward were awash with six inches of sea water which poured through the ventilation system. By afternoon all hands had been ordered aft of the forward elevator. Several hours later, seas began breaking over the flight deck, and at midnight many of her life boats and the motor whaleboat were gone. It would be but a matter of moments and the catwalks, too, would be consigned to Davey Jones locker. But Captain Wyatt was concerned for his personnel and consequently ordered that none of them venture on the flight deck and later that all except those on watch remain below deck.

For five days the CHENANGO struggled for life, her top speed three knots--just barely enough to keep her from completely foundering. Finally, the storm subside and CHENANGO steamed onward. Upon her arrival at Portsmouth, Virginia, yard workmen could not believe that the carrier had not been damaged by the enemy. She had lost a 1.1 gun director and two 20MM mounts forward the entire superstructure forward of the forward elevator was twisted and torn and her flight deck was curled upward and aft, strongly resembling a half-opened can of sardines.

The combined efforts of the shipyard workmen and her crew got the CHENANGO ready for sea again by the middle of December and she headed south to the Canal Zone. Christmas Day, 1942, was spent transiting the Canal. At Balboa she took aboard a maximum fuel load and sortied with the cruisers COLUMBIA, CLEVELAND, and MONTPELIER for the South Seas. En route on a zig-zag course, she crossed and recrossed the Equator seven times in one night! CHENANGO was beginning a 27,000 mile cruise, her first as a combat carrier, to the hot spot of the South Pacific--Guadalcanal.

When CVE-28 steamed into the harbor at Noumea, New Caledonia, the Navy&rsquos fast growing base, she became one of five carriers all the United States had available to put against the Jap fleets, then converging on Guadalcanal. Three of these were converted oilers, CHENANGO and her sister ships, SANGAMON, and SUWANNEE. The other two, SARATOGA and ENTERPRISE, were the only big carriers then in operation.

CHENANGO&rsquos Air Group 28, was dispatched the next day and flew into Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, as a part of the combined Carrier Division 22 Air Group which relieved the exhausted pilots of the ENTERPRISE. During their six-week stay ashore in April and May and the four-week period in late June and early July CHENANGO pilots fought off repeated Japanese attacks of Bettys, Zekes, Haps, and heckling float Zeros. The fighters bagged four Haps in one aerial skirmish the dive bombers nailed a Jap destroyer and two AKs during a raid on Ballale a rear-seat gunner polished off an attacking Zeke. After hundreds of hours of combat flying, the pilots returned to the ship, fourteen of them suffering from malaria, while the average weight loss was fifteen pounds per man!

While the escort carrier&rsquos bigger brothers were daring the Japanese to &ldquocome out and do battle&rdquo the baby flattops themselves were providing constant air cover for the convoys pouring men and equipment into Guadalcanal. A collateral duty was that of sortieing from Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides, each carrier taking a turn at sitting 80 or 90 miles southeast of Guadalcanal for ten to twelve days, while her air group fought off the Japanese bombers which day and night attacked Henderson Field.

It was during this period that CHENANGO planes were detailed to provide air cover for the ill-fated cruiser CHICAGO. But unfortunately, that gallant vessel had sunk when the airmen arrived. After refueling, however, they formed themselves in an umbrella over the torpedoed cruisers ST. LOUIS and HONOLULU, escorting them to safety through enemy sub-waters.

After six months of the &ldquosentry&rdquo duty off Guadalcanal without having been discovered by enemy planes or submarines or by prowling Japanese Fleet Units, CHENANGO was ordered back to Mare Island, California, for repairs and to operate briefly as a training carrier for new Air Groups forming on the west coast.

While in California, Captain (now Rear Admiral) Dixwell Ketcham came aboard to replace Skipper Wyatt, and in a short ceremony on the quarterdeck became the second commanding officer of the carrier CHENANGO.

Steaming down the western seaboard, the CVE-28 arrived in San Diego on 14 October 1943 where she took aboard Air Group 35--consisting of Fighting Squadron 35 and Torpedo Squadron 35. And when the squadron and ship sailed out of San Diego&rsquos Harbor of the Sun they entered on a 13-month rampage which was destined to distress the Japanese greatly. Together, they were to steam 110,000 miles, destroy 93 enemy planes, 91 ships, fly 4,544 sorties in combat zones, and to strike, along with other U.S. forces, at the insular stepping stones to Japan, Tarawa, Kwajalein, Eniwetok, Aitape-Hollandia, Saipan, Guam, Morotai and the Philippines.

By the time CHENANGO was ready to begin her march into history, her combat role had been established. Her rugged pre-war construction, great fuel capacity and oversize (for a CVE) flight deck typed her as an ideal close-support carrier. That is, she could stay at sea for long periods, fuel her own escorts if need be, and, steaming close to enemy coasts, day after day, launch strikes in support of troops making island landings her torpedo planes could carry out the antisubmarine patrols required in such landings and the fighters could provide a protective umbrella for the fleets of transportation, ammunition ships, tankers and landing ships supplying the troops and for the warships already engaged in close-up shelling of the beachheads. This, the carrier CHENANGO.

On the 19th of October 1943, CHENANGO set a southwesterly course for Espiritu Santo in the New Hebrides, where the Tarawa invasion fleet was assembling. After a rehearsal at Efate in the Southern New Hebrides, CHENANGO set out on 13 November in company with two of her sister ships, the SUWANNEE and SANGAMON, and covered the advance of transports and warships toward Tarawa. CHENANGO planes bombed and strafed the beaches ahead of the troops, attacked the enemy beyond the beaches and protected the convoys off shore from 20 November until 8 December 1943.

Again the gods of war smiled on CHENANGO, and immediately after her job was finished in Tarawa, she received orders to report stateside. She arrived on the West Coast in time for Christmas. Operations were resumed on New Year&rsquos Day, however, and a more intensive training program was set forth than the carrier had ever before undergone. Lessons learned in the Tarawa operations were studied and practiced diligently, for the coming Gilberts-Marshalls campaign was to be no push-over.

Returning to the Pacific battle areas, CHENANGO planes supported Allied landings on Roi-Namur in Kwajalein Atoll and also at Eniwetok. These operations called for close support and the CHENANGO steamed in so close that the crew could see their pilots bombing the beaches during the day. At night, while CHENANGO was outside the crowded harbor at Kwajalein, where the remainder of her sister ships were anchored, the Japs attempted a surprise reprisal raid. Suddenly the entire area was lighted brilliantly when one of the Japanese bombs struck a Japanese fuel dump on the beach. The enemy planes wheeled overhead and came at their targets, zooming over the CHENANGO at 1500 feet. But no bombs came crashing down on CHENANGO she was a ship with her own private rabbit&rsquos foot.

During the Palau strike, CHENANGO spent a monotonous two weeks flying combat air patrols to protect the fleet oilers and ammunition ships assembled to replenish the bigger carriers, even reverting to her original function as an oiler when she refueled the carriers LANGLEY and PRINCETON.

On the night of 15 April [1944] the South Pacific moon lit brilliantly the waters just off the coast of New Guinea. And blackly silhouetted against the almost iridescent ocean was the USS CHENANGO--dead in the water, and all alone. Somehow, water had gotten into the fuel and had doused the fires under her boilers. There was an unnatural calm and quiet as the crew gathered topside and gazed at the moonlit water--expecting to see a periscope break the surface, watching with silent expectancy, for the white bubbly wake which would announce a torpedo. The only noise that disturbed the deadly silence was below decks, where sweating engineers worked feverishly to get steam up before the boilers should cool and leave the carrier absolutely helpless. Now, was the time for the &ldquoluck of the CHENANGO&rdquo--now, if ever before she needed the smile of the gods. And she got it.

With a sudden smothered roar, the fires leapt up the boilers in a very short time there was enough steam up to again get underway and the &ldquoLucky Lady&rdquo was once more a threat to the Imperial Government of Japan.

Very little other opposition was encountered and after flying routine patrols, the CHENANGO returned to Espiritu Santo and set her Air Group ashore, where for ten days, they trained at Henderson Field, Guadalcanal. Both squadron and ship trained--trained for the forthcoming explosion of power and might--the Marianas.

On 2 June [1944], the carrier division joined the troop transports and support gunfire ships and set sail for Guam. The Japanese reacted violently, staging frequent and determined raids down from the Bonins to the north. On 22 June [1944], CHENANGO mounted a one-ship offensive of her own on Pagan Island which the Japanese were using to launch bitter attacks on the American ships.

Launching 32 planes in the attack on Pagan Island, CHENANGO absolutely crippled airfield installations there, and shot up gun positions and personnel. In addition, the strike sank four heavily loaded supply ships, damaged several others, and hammered the harbor facilities into a mass of rubble. Despite heavy and concentrated anti-aircraft fire, all CHENANGO planes returned intact. A Jap Betty which had followed two of the last planes home was shot down with the utmost dispatch.

During the last 15 days of July [1944] CHENANGO pilots flew 364 sorties against the enemy on Guam. Strafing, bombing and photographing kept every pilot, aircrewman, and crew member aboard the CHENANGO busy, and consequently earned them 32 medals and commendations. They dropped 74 tons of bombs, destroying many gun emplacements, troop concentrations, bridges, truck convoys and one desperately needed enemy ammunition dump which exploded with spectacular violence. Also, four ship&rsquos photographers were commended for their excellent and speedy work in delivering to the flagship photographs which showed the beachheads to be too difficult for successful attack.

Just before the end of the Marianas campaign a singular honor came to the CHENANGO. At four in the afternoon of 30 July [1944], a CHENANGO pilot, LTJG. Terrar, was ordered to try landing at Orote Airfield on Guam. He completed his mission successfully and reported that the field was operational for all but heavily loaded planes. By this act he became the first American airman over to land and takeoff from the island of Guam, first United States soil in the Pacific to be recaptured.

After a month of rest, recreation and training at Seaadler Harbor (Manus), in the Admiralties, CHENANGO sortied with her division on 10 September [1944] and covered the capture of Morotai Island during the period from 15 to 24 September [1944]. Air action in this operation consisted principally of fighter sweeps to neutralize enemy airfields in the surrounding Halmaheras. Many parked aircraft, barracks and airfield facilities were completely destroyed.

It was during this engagement that CHENANGO planes participated in one of the thrilling rescues of World War II. A fighter pilot from a neighboring carrier had been shot down over Wasile Bay. He parachuted safely but was drifting dangerously close to the enemy-held coast. Although enemy anti-aircraft batteries held them under continuous fire, and had already downed two fighters from another ship, CHENANGO planes repeatedly strafed Jap boats attempting to capture the downed pilot. Because of this determined covering action, a PT boat was able to speed in and rescue the flyer from under the Japanese shore batteries.

By now a team of seasoned veterans, CHENANGO and Air Group 38 were &ldquoready and willing&rdquo at the beginning of the Leyte campaign for the Philippines. Commanding this formidable outfit was Captain (now Commodore) George Van Duers, who had relieved Captain Dixwell Ketcham on 13 August 1944.

Approaching Leyte on 16 October [1944], the task force encountered an enemy as dangerous, if not more so, than the Japanese: a typhoon. Winds mounting to 86 knots quickly lashed waves up over CHENANGO&rsquos flight deck, which was 60 feet above sea level. But the invasion went as scheduled. Planes were catapulted from the deck over waves which sprayed their landing gear.

CHENANGO planes began their operations at Leyte with a flourish by downing a twinengine bomber, and on the second day struck at harbors and airfields on the Negros and Cebu Islands, inflicting damage on shipping and parked planes. In the ensuing four days, thirteen of her outstanding fighter and torpedo pilots compiled the following enviable record: six enemy planes downed, thirty-three destroyed on the ground two large transports sunk and one left burning ten merchant ships, three sampans and a barge destroyed two fuel dumps burned and an underground ammunition dump destroyed. The Japanese had felt the sting of CHENANGO--and they set out to rid themselves of this nemesis.

There are very few ships which have ever had the honor of being singled out by an enemy for an especial destruction. But the CHENANGO was awarded that distinction by His Imperial Japanese Majesty&rsquos Air Force. On the 20th of October [1944], three fast Jap planes dived out of the afternoon sun, dropped bombs on a sister ship, the SANGAMON, and missing her retired to strike again. Fighters from the SANGAMON downed one of them, CHENANGO gunners splashed another, and a CHENANGO pilot chased the third for fifty miles before shooting him down. The enemy pilot, who was picked up and taken aboard the flagship, SANGAMON, for questioning, refused to speak except to the ship&rsquos dentist, whose horrible implements evidently scared him as much as they do anyone. Even then he asked but one question--&ldquoAm I aboard the CHENANGO?&rdquo After further interrogation it developed that he had been assigned specifically to eradicate CHENANGO.

That night, Tokyo Rose, with charming naiveté, informed the listening world that, &ldquo. . .the last of the converted oiler class of aircraft carriers has been sunk as a result of air attacks by the glorious Japanese air forces. . .&rdquo

On the afternoon of the 24th [October 1944], Lady Luck smiled again on her favorite child when CHENANGO was sent to Morotai to load new aircraft. Returning four days later, she found every one of her sister ships seriously damaged and all of them more or less riddled from the point blank fire of a vast battleship force.

Just after CHENANGO had departed for Morotai, a huge Jap force of battleships, cruisers and destroyers had attempted to crush the allied landings on Leyte. All the other ships of the U.S. fleet were deployed to the north and south--fighting their own battles. Admiral Sprague&rsquos little escort carriers were the sole deciding factor in the loss or gain of the strategic isle of Leyte, where the Army forces stood with one foot on the beach and the other in the sea.

In a two day running battle, the escort carriers (which were never designed to scrap with heavy ships) completely defeated the Japanese force of battleships and cruisers, sinking many of the cruisers and destroyers and severely damaging the battlewagons.

Thus it was, when CHENANGO returned from Morotai, she found her sorely wounded, but victorious, running mates in a state of devastation, and she, once again, unscathed. CHENANGO was not lucky enough to share the fame of this Second Battle of the Philippines, which so decisively demonstrated the overwhelming powers of naval aircraft, but it was quite in character that she should return to the scene with the badly-needed replacement aircraft, and with fuel for the destroyers and destroyer escorts which had been operating wide open for two long hullwrenching days.

After Leyte, the ship was due for a Navy Yard overhaul. Setting her course to the northeast, CHENANGO cut a 7,000 mile swath through the Pacific to Seattle, Washington. Lines had hardly been secured to the bollards when leave parties left the ship--for home.

And while her young men enjoyed leaves at home, and liberty in Seattle, CHENANGO sat lonely at her mooring in the yard and waited patiently while workmen clambered over the hull, riveting and hammering, painting and renovating, getting her in condition to take a trip halfway around the globe.

On the 9th of February 1945, CHENANGO upped anchor and steamed out into the Pacific on the first lap of a 43,000 mile journey. Her first stop was at Pearl Harbor, and then taking a southwesterly course from there, journeyed to Tulagi Island in the Solomons up to Ulithi, thence to Kerama Retto and Okinawa, back down to Leyte, and terminating just 150 miles east of Sendai--an hour&rsquos flight from Tokyo. The date: 15 August 1945.

To tell in words the story of those 82 days of combat operations which CHENANGO spent in the Okinawa campaign is not easy. It is the story of the triumph of a ship&rsquos crew, of ship&rsquos plane handlers, of ship&rsquos pilots, over monotony, the strain of constant vigilance, the torture of too little sleep and too much work. This was the climax. . . .the job she&rsquod stayed afloat through the long months to do .

With Air Group 25 aboard, the ship and squadron rehearsed close support work at Cape Esperence in the Solomons during the first week of March [1945] and got underway on the 27th [March 1945] for the last and longest test of her legendary luck. On 1 April [1945], Easter Sunday, April Fool&rsquos day, and her 6th birthday, CHENANGO covered the Marines who landed on the beaches along Hagushi Anchorage. The next afternoon, at 1617 a CHENANGO torpedo bomber piloted by Ensign J. W. Moody, and bearing his wounded aircrewman, made an emergency landing on Kadena airfield--less than 24 hours after it had been wrested from the Japanese. Here was another first for the CHENANGO. Here was the carrier plane to land on Japanese home soil.

Then, CHENANGO, with carriers of her division, took part in the fake landings along the southern coast of Okinawa. Her pilots bombed, strafed, rocketed and burned away enemy concentrations, supply dumps, airfields and cave entrances wherever they could find them on Okinawa Shima. Everyone wondered when the operations would develop thus far, the initial landing and the first week of combat had been too easy.

The Japanese reaction to the first powerful blows of the fleet and air attacks came suddenly and with great determination. Waves of suicide planes came down from the Northern Ryukus and over from Formosa, pounding away at Allied shipping at Hagushi and Kerama Retto. CHENANGO&rsquos carrier division was assigned the neutralization of six enemy airfields in Sakashima Gunto, three of them on each of the two islands of Miyako and Ishigaki. These airfields were the originating points for Kamikaze planes making dawn and dusk raids on U.S. supply ships at Okinawa. From Rear Admiral W. D. Sample&rsquos flagship came the order: &ldquoKeep the airfields cratered so that planes can&rsquot land or take off on them.&rdquo And for two months CHENANGO pilots did just that, using 884 tons of high explosives to accomplish their mission.

Strikes were make before dawn, during the day, and at dusk in a grueling, unrelenting attempt to crush the fanatical &ldquoDivine Wind.&rdquo CHENANGO&rsquos only respite came when she refueled and British carriers took her place. In addition, her air group flew daily anti-submarine patrols, mounted offensive strikes in support of ground troops and did excellent photographic coverage of enemy positions from day to day.

On 9 April [1945], CHENANGO, the Lucky Lady, was in greater peril than at any other time in her entire combat career. She was operating under high pressure at the outset of the Okinawa campaign when a fighter, coming in for a landing, crashed through the barrier wires, starting a raging fire among the strike-loaded aircraft parked forward of the island. Burning gasoline ignited ammunition and rockets and threatened to detonate the heavy bombs among the burning aircraft. One bomb in particular was lying in the midst of the inferno and threatened at any moment to explode. A determined firefighter edged forward, advancing a long fog-nozzle ahead of him and cooling the hot metal bomb casing with heavy spray. Another hose weilder, mounted on the forward gun sponsons, cluttered as they were with a burning plane, methodically sprayed the first man to keep him from getting too well done.

This cool, daring and determination was exemplary of the heroism of all the crew as was evidenced by the large number of medals which were later awarded.

On 2 May [1945], Captain Harry D. Felt assumed command of the CHENANGO and skippered the ship throughout the remainder of the Okinawa operations. During this phase of the invasion, CHENANGO launched 2,659 sorties, her air group flew 129 different strikes totaling 8,822 hours against targets at Okinawa, Io Shima, Ishigaki, Miyako and Irimote Islands. Her pilots shot down three enemy planes, destroyed 20 on enemy airfields, sank 47 surface craft in the Sakashima Islands destroyed or damaged 24 anti-aircraft positions, plus 20 barracks and buildings. Their planes zoomed off the flight deck with more than 4,000 bombs and 2,500 rockets and their guns spews more than 565,000 projectiles against the enemy.

Life wasn&rsquot always completely grim for CHENANGO crewmen. Everyone got a weak smile out of Admiral Sample&rsquos wry observation concerning the mines which were sighted almost daily floating alongside, &ldquoIt&rsquos a good thing there aren&rsquot any mines out here after dark.&rdquo

On the evening of 11 June [1945], CHENANGO departed the Okinawa area, herding a group of tankers ahead of her. Stopping off at Macerata on Samar Island, everyone went ashore for one of the rarest of the few Pacific luxuries--a recreation period. While CVE-28 swung at her hook, scuttlebutt (naval parlance for rumour) ran hot and cold as everyone speculated as to the next operation.

On 9 July [1945], Air Group 25 started back to the States and night flying Air Group 33, formerly with SANGAMON, reported abroad and was immediately taken out for a training cruise. After a secondary cruise late in the month, CHENANGO started out on what was to be her V-J excursion. She was going north to furnish air protection for the fleet oilers, ammunition and supply ships which were supporting Admiral Halsey&rsquos month-long offensive against Honshu, Hokkaido, and Shikoku. Her route took her within 30 miles of the enemy-held island of Yap and a short distance from where, twenty-four hours later, the cruiser INDIANAPOLIS was sunk.

On 15 August [1945] while she was steaming off Sendai, CHENANGO&rsquoS radioman reported hearing an Australian broadcast by BBC that the Japs, broken by the savage Russian offensive, the unrelenting fury of Admiral Halsey&rsquos forces, and finally, the crushing blow of the atom bomb, were ready to surrender. Peace had come again to the major nations of the world.

The war phase of CHENANGO&rsquoS history ends at San Diego, California, two and onehalf months after V-J Day. During these seventy-five days the ship evacuated from the atomic bomb blasts city of Nagasaki, Kyushu, Japan, some 1,900 prisoners of war--Aussies, British, Netherlands East Indians and Dutch as well as Americans, plus some 1500 civilian workers who had been slave labor for their brutal Jap captors ever since Wake Island fell two days before Christmas 1941.

Having completed two of these evacuation trips, the CHENANGO ran at top speed for two thousand miles down Manila way while dodging two different typhoons and rode out another which blew at 87 miles an hour across her flight deck in sheltered Sasebo Harbor. Then followed days of standing by while occupation forces established themselves in Southern Kyushu, a hurry call to bomb some minefields outside Fukuoka, and a dash up to Tokyo for a last look around before she began her 23-day trip home. And even on this long awaited trip a freak threeday storm broke around CHENANGO, in an area of the Pacific where no storms had been known to blow in the past 50 years.

On 16 November 1945, thirty-eight months after her commissioning, the CHENANGO tied up at San Diego. Air Group 33 disembarked and the ship immediately began preparations for her next assignment--magic carpet duty. That same day she sailed for a two-week availability at San Pedro, California.

On 1 December [1945], CHENANGO put to sea again orders were to Okinawa to transport 1,100 Army personnel to Seattle. It meant Christmas and New Year&rsquos Day at sea again, but it also meant putting the finishing touches on the job to which she had already contributed so much. Arriving at Okinawa on 19 December [1945], the dischargees were embarked and on 28 December [1945] set out again for the States. The ship, with her veterans-to-be tied up at Seattle on 7 January [1946]. After refueling and reprovisioning she stood out to sea again, this time for Pearl Harbor.

By 1 February [1946], CHENANGO was back in the States, at San Pedro. After a fourday stay there, the carrier was again en route, this time to Boston, where she was scheduled to be put into the &ldquozipper&rdquo fleet. Transiting the Panama Canal on 13-16 March [1946], CHENANGO sailed up the eastern seaboard and arrived at the Boston Navy Yard on 22 March 1946.

At the time of this writing, (10 October 1947) the USS CHENANGO (CVE 28) is out of commission in reserve in the Boston Group, Atlantic Reserve Fleet.


Silver Star

The President of the United States of America takes pride in presenting the Silver Star (Posthumously) to Rear Admiral Theodore Edson Chandler (NSN: 0-9050), United States Navy, for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity as Commander, Battleship Division TWO, in action against major units of the enemy Japanese Fleet during the Battle of Surigao Strait in the early hours of 25 October 1944. When a formidable column of Japanese warships entered the narrow confines of the Strait and advanced under cover of darkness toward our waiting forces, Rear Admiral Chandler, with his division placed among other battleships in the strategic T-formation across the northern end of Surigao, hurled the full power of his heavy guns at the confused enemy force. Directing the shattering broadsides of his mighty vessels with unrelenting fury, he waged fierce battle against the enemy in a prolonged engagement which resulted in the destruction of two Japanese battleships and three destroyers before effective return fire could be brought to bear on our ships. Subsequently retiring his division unscathed from the action, Rear Admiral Chandler, by his brilliant leadership, outstanding professional skill and indomitable fighting spirit in the face of tremendous odds, contributed materially to the defeat of the enemy in this decisive action and his undaunted courage throughout upheld the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.

Service: Navy
Division: Battleship Division 2
Rank: Rear Admiral


USS Fletcher (DD/DDE-445), named for Admiral Frank Friday Fletcher, was the lead Fletcher-class destroyer, and served in the Pacific during World War II. She received fifteen battle stars for World War II service, and five for Korean War service.

USS Kitkun Bay (CVE-71) was a US Navy Casablanca class escort carrier launched on 8 November 1943.

USS Hoggatt Bay (CVE-75) was a Casablanca class escort carrier of the United States Navy.

USS Manila Bay (CVE-61) was a Casablanca-class escort carrier of the United States Navy.

USS Louisville (CL/CA-28), a Northampton-class cruiser, was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named for the city of Louisville, Kentucky. She was active throughout the Pacific War. USS Louisville was the first large warship to be built in a drydock.

USS Heermann (DD-532) was a World War II-era Fletcher-class destroyer in the service of the United States Navy, named after Fleet Surgeon Lewis Heermann (1779�). The ship entered service in 1943 and took part in several battles during World War II in the Pacific theatre of operations, including the Philippines campaign, Battle off Samar and the Battle of Iwo Jima among others. Heermann gained fame during the "last stand of the Tin Can Sailors" in which she and several other destroyers of Task Unit 77.4.3 engaged a far superior Japanese task force during the Battle off Samar in October 1944. Heermann was the only American destroyer of "Taffy 3" to survive the engagement. Following the end of the war in 1945, the ship was placed in reserve from 1946 to 1951, when the destroyer was reactivated. Heermann remained in active service until 1957, when the ship was returned to the reserve. In 1961, Heerman was loaned to Argentina and was renamed ARA Almirante Brown (D-20) while in service with the Argentinian Navy. Almirante Brown remained in Argentinian service until 1982, when the ship was decommissioned.

USS Mertz (DD-691) was a World War II-era Fletcher-class destroyer in the service of the United States Navy, named after Rear Admiral Albert Mertz.

USS Hughes (DD-410) was a World War II-era Sims-class destroyer in the service of the United States Navy, named after Commander Edward Merritt Hughes.

USS Jenkins (DD-447) was a Fletcher-class destroyer in the service of the United States Navy, the second ship named after Rear Admiral Thornton A. Jenkins. Beginning service during World War II, the destroyer saw action in the Pacific theatre. Jenkins was placed in reserve following the end of the war, remaining in this state until 1951, when the ship was reactivated for the Korean War. She served in the western Pacific until 1969 when the destroyer was taken out of service and sold for scrap in 1971.

USS Killen (DD-593), a Fletcher-class destroyer, was a ship of the United States Navy named for Edward Killen, who served in the First Barbary War. Killen volunteered for Lieutenant Stephen Decatur's daring 1804 expedition into Tripoli Harbor to destroy Philadelphia , a United States frigate captured by Tripolitan pirates.

USS Hutchins (DD-476), a Fletcher-class destroyer, was a ship of the United States Navy named for Lieutenant Carlton B. Hutchins (1904�), a naval aviator who was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor.

USS Halligan (DD-584) was a Fletcher-class destroyer of the United States Navy, named for Rear Admiral John Halligan, Jr. (1876�).

USS Remey (DD-688) was a Fletcher-class destroyer of the United States Navy, named for Rear Admiral George C. Remey (1841�).

USS Hale (DD-642), a Fletcher-class destroyer, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for Maine Senator Eugene Hale (1836�).

USS Kimberly (DD-521), a Fletcher-class destroyer, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named after Rear Admiral Lewis A. Kimberly (1838�).

USS John D. Henley (DD-553), a Fletcher-class destroyer, was a ship of the United States Navy named for Captain John D. Henley (1781�).

USS Haggard (DD-555) was a Fletcher-class destroyer of the United States Navy named for Captain Haggard of the Louisa, who fought in the Quasi-War.

USS Hall (DD-583) was a Fletcher-class destroyer of the United States Navy, named for Lieutenant Elijah Hall (1742�), who served in the Continental Navy under John Paul Jones. Hall entered service in 1943 and deployed to the Pacific theater. Following the war, the ship was placed in reserve until 1959, when she was sold to the Hellenic Navy and renamed Lonchi. The destroyer remained in service with the Hellenic Navy until 1990 and was scrapped in 1997.

USS McDermut (DD-677) was a Fletcher-class destroyer of the United States Navy, the second Navy ship named for Lieutenant Commander David A. McDermut.

USS McNair (DD-679) was a Fletcher-class destroyer of the United States Navy, named for Rear Admiral Frederick V. McNair, Sr., (1839�).


Watch the video: Suicide attack on USS Louisville CA-28 - 6 January 1945 (August 2022).