Articles

New dating of Homo erectus skull reclassifies Lantian Man as oldest known hominin in northeast Asia

New dating of Homo erectus skull reclassifies Lantian Man as oldest known hominin in northeast Asia



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Lantian Man is the name given to subspecies of Homo erectus of which ancient fossils were found in Lantian County, Shaanxi Province in China in 1963. Lantian Man were originally dated to 1.15 million years. However, a new study published in the Journal of Human Evolution , has provided compelling evidence that the fossil is actually 1.63 million years old, making it the oldest fossil hominin ever found in northeast Asia, and its original location the second oldest site with cranial remains outside Africa.

The first remnant of Lantian Man that was found was a mandible (jaw bone) at Chenjiawo in Lantian County. Shortly after this discovery, a cranium (skull) with nasal bones, right maxilla, and three teeth of another specimen of Lantian Man were found at Gongwangling, another site in Lantian County. The cranial capacity is estimated to be relatively small at 780 cubic centimetres.

Lantian Man skull and jaw replicas, Shaanxi History Museum ( Wikimedia Commons )

The new age of Lantian Man was obtained through highly detailed research carried out over 12 years (2001 – 2013), which utilized latest methods including loess-palaeosol stratigraphy, tectonic-geomorphology, sedimentology and mineralogy, geochemistry, palaeontology, paleomagnetism and rock magnetic methods. They also analysed thousands of other samples found in the area.

"This age is consistent with the geological context and the subtropical fossil fauna at Gongwangling, and also the small-brain size of the Gongwangling Homo erectus cranium, similar to that seen in Georgia and Indonesia", said HUANG Weiwen, a professor of the nstitute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology of Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, as reported on Phys.org.

Lantian County in Shaanxi Province in China, where the ancient Homo erectus fossils were found ( thetourofChina.com).

According to the researchers, the new dating of Lantian Man suggests that Homo erectus moved eastwards in warm period that occurred just after 1.75 million years ago. They may also have followed southern routes from Africa into Asia, as evidenced by the presence of fossils in Indonesia that are only slightly younger (c. 1.5 – 1.6 million years).

"The revised age extends its age by about half a million years and makes the Gongwangling site a crucial benchmark in establishing the framework of the origin, migration and dispersal of early man in the Old World", said Robin Dennell of University of Exeter in United Kingdom, "It also provides reasonable evidence for re-evaluating the status of other early and controversial human fossils in China and Java. In addition, this new research rewrites the history of the Lantian hominin and provides additional knowledge of human evolution for the public".

Featured image: A facial reconstruction of ‘Lantian Man’, based on a skull found in China ( Wikimedia Commons )


    New dating of Homo erectus skull reclassifies Lantian Man as oldest known hominin in northeast Asia - History

    According to paper published online November 20 in the Journal of Human Evolution, the age of the Lantian Homo erectus cranium from Gongwangling, Lantian County, Shaanxi Province, China, is likely half a million years older than previously thought. Earlier estimates dated this important fossil, which was found in 1964, to 1.15 million years ago. A research team of Chinese and British scientists, have provided compelling evidence that the fossil should be dated to 1.63 million years ago, making it the oldest fossil hominin cranium known in northeast Asia, and the second oldest site with cranial remains outside Africa. Only the Dmanisi crania from Georgia that, like Lantian, are relatively small-brained, are older, at around 1.75 million years old.

    The new date for the Lantian cranium provides good evidence that small-brained hominins moved rapidly eastwards in a warm period just after 1.75 million years ago. The presence of fossils much further south, in Indonesia, that are only slightly younger (c. 1.5 – 1.6 million years ago), also opens up the possibility that hominins followed northern and southern dispersal routes from Africa into Asia.

    The research team, of scientists from the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry of Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Exeter in United Kingdom and the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology of Chinese Academy of Sciences (IVPP), led by Professors ZHU Zhaoyu, Robin Dennell and HUANG Weiwen used a range of methods including loess-palaeosol stratigraphy, tectonic-geomorphology, sedimentology and mineralogy, geochemistry, palaeontology, paleomagnetism and rock magnetic methods to re-date the skull. Over 12 years (2001–2013) of research, they investigated some key geological sections by using high-resolution sampling, such as the Gongwangling and Jiacun sections in the Lantian basin of North China immediately north of the Qinling Mountains, and measured thousands of samples.

    Based on reference and analysis of previous literature, four lines of new evidence from this research have been established to support a re-dating of the Gongwangling hominin from 1.15 to ca. 1.63 million years ago. First, the fossiliferous horizon cannot be attributed, as previously thought, to the 15th loess unit (L15), but lies below L15 and an underlying erosional surface, and there is therefore a stratigraphic break between L15 and the hominin horizon. Second, the fossil horizon is situated between the Gilsa Event (average age c. 1.62 million years ago) and the Olduvai Subchron (top age 1.77 million years ago) of the geomagnetic zones in the section, and thus the fossil horizon should correspond to the 22-23rd palaeosol units (S22

    S23). Thirdly, the same type of subtropical faunal assemblage was found at both the Gongwangling sections and at Jiacun, and in the same stratigraphic position, i.e., S22–S23, between the Gilsa Event and the Olduvai Subchron. Fourthly, based on the palaeomagnetic time scale and the astronomical timescale of the Chinese loess-paleosol sequence, the age of the horizon of the Gongwangling fossil cranium should be about 1.63 million years ago, which was also a warm climatic period.

    "This age is consistent with the geological context and the subtropical fossil fauna at Gongwangling, and also the small-brain size of the Gongwangling Homo erectus cranium, similar to that seen in Georgia and Indonesia", said HUANG Weiwen, a professor of the IVPP in Beijing.

    "The revised age extends its age by about half a million years and makes the Gongwangling site a crucial benchmark in establishing the framework of the origin, migration and dispersal of early man in the Old World", said Robin Dennell of University of Exeter in United Kingdom, "It also provides reasonable evidence for re-evaluating the status of other early and controversial human fossils in China and Java. In addition, this new research rewrites the history of the Lantian hominin and provides additional knowledge of human evolution for the public".

    The new dating of the Gongwangling cranium is a multi-disciplinary research based on the fine correlation between the Chinese loess strata (the loess-palaeosol sequence over a period of 2.5 million year) and marine oxygen isotope stages, and the results demonstrate again that the Chinese loess-palaeosol sequence should and will play an important role in studies of Quaternary global change and early human evolution over the last two million years.

    This research was mainly supported by the National Basic Research Program of China and the Knowledge Innovation Program of CAS.

    Fig.1 The cranium of Lantian Homo erectus (Image by HUANG Weiwen)


    Erq el-Ahmar, Jordan

    Erk el-Ahmar is located about 10 kilometers south of the Sea of Galilee. Published in the October issue of the journal Geology, Shaul Levi, a professor emeritus of oceanic and atmospheric sciences at Oregon State University, and Hagai Ron, an Israeli geophysicist, dated the rock formation. This suggests that the stone tools found there are perhaps the oldest evidence of humans outside of Africa. Furthermore, it suggests that the Levantine corridor was the route of egress from the continent. Anthropologists from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have discovered Oldowan tools such as core choppers and flakes of flint.

    Oregon State University. “Researchers Zero In On Date Of Early Hominids.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 8 November 2001. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/11/011107072856.htm>.


    New dating of Homo erectus skull reclassifies Lantian Man as oldest known hominin in northeast Asia - History

    About Us
    Research
    Newsroom
    International
    Join Us

    Research Progress

    New Age of the Lantian Homo Erectus Cranium Extending to About 1.63 Million Years Ago

    According to paper published online November 20 in the Journal of Human Evolution, the age of the Lantian Homo erectus cranium from Gongwangling, Lantian County, Shaanxi Province, China, is likely half a million years older than previously thought. Earlier estimates dated this important fossil, which was found in 1964, to 1.15 million years ago. A research team of Chinese and British scientists, have provided compelling evidence that the fossil should be dated to 1.63 million years ago, making it the oldest fossil hominin cranium known in northeast Asia, and the second oldest site with cranial remains outside Africa. Only the Dmanisi crania from Georgia that, like Lantian, are relatively small-brained, are older, at around 1.75 million years old.

    The new date for the Lantian cranium provides good evidence that small-brained hominins moved rapidly eastwards in a warm period just after 1.75 million years ago. The presence of fossils much further south, in Indonesia, that are only slightly younger (c. 1.5 – 1.6 million years ago), also opens up the possibility that hominins followed northern and southern dispersal routes from Africa into Asia.

    The research team, of scientists from the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry of Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Exeter in United Kingdom and the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology of Chinese Academy of Sciences (IVPP), led by Professors ZHU Zhaoyu, Robin Dennell and HUANG Weiwen used a range of methods including loess-palaeosol stratigraphy, tectonic-geomorphology, sedimentology and mineralogy, geochemistry, palaeontology, paleomagnetism and rock magnetic methods to re-date the skull. Over 12 years (2001–2013) of research, they investigated some key geological sections by using high-resolution sampling, such as the Gongwangling and Jiacun sections in the Lantian basin of North China immediately north of the Qinling Mountains, and measured thousands of samples.

    Based on reference and analysis of previous literature, four lines of new evidence from this research have been established to support a re-dating of the Gongwangling hominin from 1.15 to ca. 1.63 million years ago. First, the fossiliferous horizon cannot be attributed, as previously thought, to the 15th loess unit (L15), but lies below L15 and an underlying erosional surface, and there is therefore a stratigraphic break between L15 and the hominin horizon. Second, the fossil horizon is situated between the Gilsa Event (average age c. 1.62 million years ago) and the Olduvai Subchron (top age 1.77 million years ago) of the geomagnetic zones in the section, and thus the fossil horizon should correspond to the 22-23rd palaeosol units (S22

    S23). Thirdly, the same type of subtropical faunal assemblage was found at both the Gongwangling sections and at Jiacun, and in the same stratigraphic position, i.e., S22–S23, between the Gilsa Event and the Olduvai Subchron. Fourthly, based on the palaeomagnetic time scale and the astronomical timescale of the Chinese loess-paleosol sequence, the age of the horizon of the Gongwangling fossil cranium should be about 1.63 million years ago, which was also a warm climatic period.

    "This age is consistent with the geological context and the subtropical fossil fauna at Gongwangling, and also the small-brain size of the Gongwangling Homo erectus cranium, similar to that seen in Georgia and Indonesia", said HUANG Weiwen, a professor of the IVPP in Beijing.

    "The revised age extends its age by about half a million years and makes the Gongwangling site a crucial benchmark in establishing the framework of the origin, migration and dispersal of early man in the Old World", said Robin Dennell of University of Exeter in United Kingdom, "It also provides reasonable evidence for re-evaluating the status of other early and controversial human fossils in China and Java. In addition, this new research rewrites the history of the Lantian hominin and provides additional knowledge of human evolution for the public".

    The new dating of the Gongwangling cranium is a multi-disciplinary research based on the fine correlation between the Chinese loess strata (the loess-palaeosol sequence over a period of 2.5 million year) and marine oxygen isotope stages, and the results demonstrate again that the Chinese loess-palaeosol sequence should and will play an important role in studies of Quaternary global change and early human evolution over the last two million years.

    This research was mainly supported by the National Basic Research Program of China and the Knowledge Innovation Program of CAS.

    Fig.1 The cranium of Lantian Homo erectus (Image by HUANG Weiwen)


    Affiliations

    Paleomagnetism Laboratory, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029, China

    R. X. Zhu, C. L. Deng, C. D. Shi, Y. X. Pan, H. Q. Wang, R. P. Shi, Y. C. Wang, G. H. Shi & N. Q. Wu

    Human Origins Program, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, 20560-0112, USA

    Hebei Province Institute of Cultural Relics, 050000, Shijiazhuang, China

    Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, California, 93410, USA

    You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

    You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

    You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

    You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

    You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

    You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

    You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

    You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

    You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

    You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

    You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

    You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar

    Corresponding authors


    Résumé

    La majorité de la communauté scientifique étudiant l’évolution humaine propose que Homo erectus était la première espèce humaine à quitter le continent africain, il y a ∼1,85 million d’années (Ma). De récentes découvertes dans la séquence de paléosols et de loess, située près du site de l’Homme de Lantian dans le nord de la Chine, montrent néanmoins, la présence d’artefacts lithiques depuis 2,12 Ma, y indiquant l’occupation d’homininés antérieure à l’apparition d’Homo erectus. Ici, nous avons appliqué la datation d’enfouissement 26 Al/ 10 Be par isochrone, une méthode établie récemment et dont la fiabilité a été vérifiée par l’intercomparaison avec la méthode de datation 40 Ar/ 39 Ar, à deux endroits sur le site Paléolithique de Xihoudu, situé à ∼100 km à l’est de Shangchen. Les résultats montrent que les outils lithiques découverts dans des graviers fluviatiles, sont datés de 2,43 ± 0,06 Ma (1σ). Il est de ce fait le plus vieux site d’occupation humaine de l’Eurasie daté par une méthode radio-isotopique. Cette nouvelle datation a été appuyée par la datation relative établie par la biostratigraphie, par les âges d’enfouissement des quartz de sable provenant de carottes profondes, et par une bonne concordance obtenue entre deux isochrones. Même si la validité des artefacts de Xiboudu a été débattue dans le passé à cause d’une abrasion fluviatile marquée, il est évident que les outils ont été façonnés intentionnellement par les hommes. On note, en particulier, la présence de deux nucléus avec très peu de cortex et un grand nombre d’éclats sans cortex, indiquant des enlèvements multiples et persistants. Les artefacts de Xihoudu datés du début du Quaternaire conforte vivement le scénario d’une migration plus ancienne en dehors de l’Afrique (« Out of Africa I »), à une période proche de l’émergence du genre Homo et de l’industrie Oldowayenne.


    Chinese Prehistoric Eyed Bone Needles: A Review and Assessment

    The invention of eyed bone needles (EBNs), thought to be directly related to closer-fitting sewn clothing, was a development critical to the survival of Homo sapiens throughout the Old and New Worlds, particularly when they moved into higher latitudes and were impacted by major glacial events. Although EBNs from Europe and North America are relatively well researched, many other regions still have not received comparable attention. Here, we present a synthesis of the currently available EBN data from China that to date have been largely presented only in the Chinese language. We report 1619 EBNs from 138 sites that date to the Late Paleolithic, Neolithic, and Bronze Age, where they are eventually replaced during the Han Dynasty (202 BC–AD 220) by the development of eyed iron needles. The four key conclusions drawn from this synthesis are: (1) the earliest appearance of EBNs in China is contemporary with similar bone tools from Europe, and they continue to appear regularly into the Bronze Age (2) the Chinese EBNs are more commonly reported in the north than the south, but this may reflect generally poorer bone preservation or less intensive research in the south (3) the basic metric dimensions of EBNs in China do not change dramatically through time from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic to the Bronze Age, though some degree of variation is present—for example, rather large EBNs appear during the Neolithic, possibly reflecting different functions (e.g., sewing vs. weaving) and (4) Chinese EBNs are known from almost every type of archaeological context, ranging from temporarily occupied cave and open-air sites during the Paleolithic to larger open-air settlement sites in the Neolithic and Bronze Age—they are not only found in areas that may have served for clothing preparation, they are also commonly found as funerary items.

    穿孔骨针的发明常常被认为与人类缝制衣物的行为直接相关,是生活在整个新大陆和旧大陆的智人生存和发展的关键,尤其是当人类进入高纬度地区和受到重要冰期事件影响的时候。迄今为止,学者们对来自欧洲和北美的穿孔骨针开展了大量的研究,但其他地区的材料并未得到应有的关注。现在我们系统整理来自中国目前已知的穿孔骨针的资料和数据,报道在中国138个遗址发现的1619件穿孔骨针,时代从旧石器时代晚期跨越新石器时代到青铜时代,直至汉代 (公元前202年 – 公元220年) 被钢针替代。我们的主要结论如下:1) 最早出现在中国的穿孔骨针与欧洲最早的发现在时间上一致,并有规律地延续到青铜时代。2) 中国的穿孔骨针在北方比南方更为常见,可能反映了南方的骨针保存条件较差或研究程度不高。3) 从旧石器时代、新石器时代,到青铜器时代,中国穿孔骨针的尺寸大小虽然存在一定程度的变化,但无论时间上还是地理空间上这种变化并不显著。例如,尺寸相对较大的穿孔骨针出现在新石器时代,可能反映了其不同的功能和用途 (如缝纫和编织)。4) 中国的穿孔骨针发现于各种类型的考古遗址和埋藏环境,从旧石器时代临时居住的洞穴和露天遗址,到新石器时代和青铜时代更大的露天聚落遗址。它们不仅存在于可能用于缝制衣物的地区,还通常作为随葬品发现于墓葬之中。


    The First Boat People

    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.
    • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
    • Online publication date: November 2009
    • Print publication year: 2006
    • Online ISBN: 9780511600524
    • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511600524
    • Subjects: Life Sciences, Archaeology: General Interest, Archaeology, Biological Anthropology and Primatology
    • Series: Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology (47)

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Book description

    The First Boat People concerns how people travelled across the world to Australia in the Pleistocene. It traces movement from Africa to Australia, offering a new view of population growth at that time, challenging current ideas, and underscoring problems with the 'Out of Africa' theory of how modern humans emerged. The variety of routes, strategies and opportunities that could have been used by those first migrants is proposed against the very different regional geography that existed at that time. Steve Webb shows the impact of human entry into Australia on the megafauna using fresh evidence from his work in Central Australia, including a description of palaeoenvironmental conditions existing there during the last two glaciations. He argues for an early human arrival and describes in detail the skeletal evidence for the first Australians. This is a stimulating account for students and researchers in biological anthropology, human evolution and archaeology.

    Reviews

    Review of the hardback:'Steve Webb is an excellent expert of the Australian Biological Anthropology. The First Boat People concerns how people travelled across the world to Australia. It traces movements from Africa to Australia, offering a new view of population growth at that time, challenging current ideas and underscoring problems with the Out of Africa theory of how modern humans emerged. A most interesting book which describes all facets of the topic.'


    New dating of Homo erectus skull reclassifies Lantian Man as oldest known hominin in northeast Asia - History

    Achilli, A., Perego, U.A., Bravi, C. M., Coble, M. D., Kong, Q.-P., Woodward, S. R., Salas, A., Terroni, A., Bandelt, H.-J., “The Phylogeny of the Four Pan-American MtDNA Haplogroups: Implications for Evolutionary and disease Studies,” PLoS ONE, 3(3) e1764.

    Adovasio, J.M., Page, J., The First Americans: In Pursuit of Archaeology’s Greatest Mystery, Modern Library, Imprint of Random House, 2003.

    Alaska Northwest Books, Cooking Alaskan by Alaskans, Alaska Northwest Books, 1983.

    Albino, A., Carlini, A., "First Record of Boa Constrictor (Serpentes, Boidae) in the Quaternary of South America," Journal of Herpetology, March 2008.

    Alvarenga, H., Jones, W. Rinderknecht, "The youngest record of phorusrhacid birds (Aves, Phorusrhacidae) from the late Pleistocene of Uruguay," N. Jb. Geol. Palaontol. Abh 256/2, April 2010. (in English)

    Ao, H., Deng, C, Dekkers, M. J., Sun, Y., Liu, Q., Zhu, R., “Pleistocene environmental evolution in the Nihewan Basin and implications for early human colonization of North China,” Quaternary International, 2010.

    Bae, C., “The late Middle Pleistocene hominin fossil record of eastern Asia: Synthesis and review,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, supplement yearbook, 143(51), 2010.

    Bae, K., “Origin and patterns of the Upper Paleolithic industries in the Korean Peninsula and movement of modern humans in East Asia,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), 2010.

    BBC Article Cites Antiquity on Oldest Evidence of Arrows Found (64,000 years ago), http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-11086110

    Bailey, S., "A Closer Look at Neanderthal Postcanine Dental Morphology: The Mandibular Dentition," The Anatomical Record, 269, 2002.

    Bailey, S. E., Wu, L., “A comparative dental metrical and morphological analysis of a Middle Pleistocene hominin maxilla from Chaoxian (Chaohu), China,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), 2010.

    Bailliet, G., Rothhammer, F., Garnese, F. R., Bravi,C.M., and Bianchi, N. O., “Founder Mitochondrial Haplotypes in Amerindian Populations,” The Journal of Human Genetics, 54, 1994.

    Balter, M., “Child Burial Provides Rare Glimpse of Early Americans,” ScienceNOW, Feb 2011.

    Banks, W., D'Errico, F., Dibble, H., Krishtalka, L., West, D., Olszewski, D., Peterson, A., Anderson, D., Gillam, J., Montet-White, A., Crucifix, M., Marean, C., Sánchez-Goñi, M., Wohlfarth, B., Vanhaeran, M., “Eco-Cultural Niche Modeling: New Tools for Reconstructing the Geography and Ecology of Past Human Populations,” PaleoAnthropology, 2006.

    Bannai, M., Ohashi, J., Harihara, S., Takahashi, Y., Juji, T., Omoto, K., Tokunaga, K., “Analysis of HLA genes and haplotypes in Ainu (from Hokkaido, northern Japan) supports the premise that they descent from Upper Paleolithic populations of East Asia,” Tissue Antigens, 55, 2000.

    Bengston, John D., In Hot Pursuit of Language in Prehistory, John Benjamin Publishing Co., The Netherlands, 2008.

    Benson, L., Lund, S., Smoot, J., Rhode, D., Spencer, R., Verosub, K., Louderback, L., Johnson, C., “The rise and fall of Lake Bonneville between 45 and 10.5 ka,” Quaternary International, 235(1-2), 2009.

    Boeskorov, G. G., “The North of Eastern Siberia: Refuge of Mammoth Fauna in the Holocene,” Gondwana Research, 7(2) 2004, available in English in ScienceDirect, November 2005

    Bogoras, W., The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Memoir of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume VII, The Chukchee, Leiden, E. J. Brill, Ltd., Printers and Publishers, 1975 (reprint of the 1904-1909 edition). This publication is routinely referred to as The Chukchee.

    Bolnick, D. A., Shook, B. A, Campbell, L, Goddard, I, “Problematic Use of Greenberg’s Linguistic Classification of the Americas in Studies of Native American Genetic Variation,” American Journal of Human Genetics, 75(3): 2004.

    Bonnichsen, R. Lepper, B., Stanford, D., Waters, M., Paleoamerican Origins: Beyond Clovis, Center for the Study of the First Americans, Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, 2005.

    Borrell, B., “Bon Voyage, Caveman,” Archaeology, 63(3), May/June 2010. (possibility of seafaring by Homo erectus at 130,000 ya)

    Bower, B., “Asian Trek,” Science News, 171(14), 4/7/2007.

    Bower, B., “Ancient hominids may have been seafarers,” Science News, 177(3), 2010.

    Brantingham, P., Gao, X., Madsen, D., Bettinger, R., Elston, r., “ The initial Upper Paleolithic at Shuidonggou, Northwestern China,” in The Early Upper Paleolithic beyond Western Europe, Ed. By Brantingham, P, Juhn, S., and Kerry, K., 2004.

    Bryan, A. (ed.), New Evidence for the Pleistocene Peopling of the Americas, Center for the Study of Early Man, University of Maine at Orono, 1986.

    Cannon, M. D., “Explaining variability in Early Paleoindian foraging,” Quaternary International, 191(1), 2008.

    Carmel, James H., "Homo sapiens and Neanderthals lived in peace, say researchers," The Times, United Kingdom, http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/news/world/middleeaste/article3552845.ece, 2013.

    Carter, George F., Earlier Than You Think: A Personal View of Man in America, Texas A&M University Press, 1980.

    Catto, N., “Quaternary floral and faunal asssemblages: Ecological and taphonomical investigations,” Quaternary International, 233(2), 2011.

    Catto, N., “Quaternary landscape evolution: Interplay of climate, tectonics, geomorphology, and natural hazards,” Quaternary International, 233(1), 2011.

    Chauhan, P. R., “Large mammal fossil occurrences and associated archaeological evidence in Pleistocene contexts of peninsular India and Sri Lanka,” Quaternary International, 192(1), 2008.

    Chen, C., An, J, Chen, H., “Analysis of the Xionanhai lithic assemblage, excavated in 1978,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), 2010.

    Chen, X-Y., Cui, G-H., Yang, J-X., “Threatened fishes of the world: Pseudobagrus medianalis (Regan) 1904 (Bagridae), Environmental Biology of Fishes, 81(3), 2008.

    Chlachula, J., Drozdov, N., Ovodov, N., “Last Interglacial peopling of Siberia: the Middle Palaeolithic site Ust'-Izhul', the upper Yenisei area,” Boreas, 32, 2003.

    Choi, C., "Denisovan Genome Sequenced, Reveals Brown-Eyed Girl of Extinct Human Species, Researchers say," Huff Post, August30, 2012.

    Ciochon, R., Bettis III, A., “Asian Homo erectus converges in time,” Nature, 458, March 2009

    Cione, A., Tonni, E., Soibelzon, L., “The Broken Zig-Zag: Late Cenozoic large mammal and tortoise extinction in South America,” Rev. Mus. Argentino Cienc. Nat., n.s., 5(1), 2003.

    Connor, Cathy, O'Haire, Daniel, Roadside Geology of Alaska, Mountain Press Publishing Company, 1988.

    Coppens, Y., Tseveendorj, D., Demeter, F., Turbat, T., and Giscard, P., “Discovery of an archaic Homo sapiens skullcap in Northeast Mongolia,” Comptes Rendus Palevol, 7(1), Feb 2008. Note: The findings are that the skullcap shows similarities with Neanderthals, Chinese Homo erectus, and West/Far East archaic Homo sapiens. Dating is possible late Pleistocene.

    Corvinus, G., “Homo erectus in East and Southeast Asia, and the questions of the age of the species and its association with stone artifacts, with special attention to handaxe-like tools,” Quaternary International, 117, 2004.

    Coxe, W., The Russian Discoveries Between Asia and America, Readex Microprint Corp., 1966, copy of Coxe's document from 1780.

    Cremo, M., Thompson, R., Forbidden Archaeology: The Hidden History of the Human Race, Unlimited Resources, 1996-2011.

    Delluc, B., Delluc, G., “Art Paléolithique, saisons et climats,” Comtes Rendus Palevol, 5, 2006.

    Demske, D., Heumann, G., Granoszewski, W., Nita, M., Mamakowa, K., Tarasov, P., Oberhänsli, H., “Late glacial and Holocene vegetation and regional climate variability evidenced in high-resolution pollen records from Lake Baikal,” Global and Planetary Change, 46, 2005.

    Derbeneva, O. A., Sukernik, R. I., Volodko, N.V., Hosseini, s. H., Lott, M. T., and Wallace, D. C., “Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in the Aleuts of the Commander Islands and Its Implications for the Genetic History of Beringia,” The American Journal of Human Genetics, 71(2): 2002.

    Derenko, M., Malyarchuk, B., Grzybowski, T., Denisove, G., Dambueva, I., Perkova, M., Dorzhu, C., Luzina, F., Lee, H. K., Vanecek, T., Villems, R., and Zakharov, I., “Phylogeographic analysis of Mitochondrial DNA in Northern Asian Populations,” The American Journal of Human Genetics, 81, November 2007.

    Dickinson, William R., "Geological perspectives on hte Monte Verde archaeological site in Chile and pre-Clovis coastal migration in the Americas.," Quaternary Research, 76, 201-210, 2011.

    Dillehay, T. D., The Settlement of the Americas: A New Prehistory, Basic Books of the Perseus Books Group, 2000.

    Dilley, Lorie M, Dilley, Thomas E., Guidebook to Geology of Anchorage, Alaska, Lorie M. Dilley and Thomas E. Dilley, 2,000.

    Dixon, E. J. and G. S. Smith, "Broken canines from Alaskan cave deposits: re-evaluating evidence for domesticated dog and early humans in Alaska." American Antiquity, 51(2): 1986.

    Doelman, T., “Flexibility and Creativity in Microblade Core Manufacture in Southern Primorye, Far East Russia,” Asian Perspectives, 47(2), 2009.

    Elliott, D.K., Dynamics of Extinction, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1986.

    Elston, Robert G., Brantingham, P. Jeffrey, "Microlithic Technology in Northern Asia: A Risk-Minimizing Strategy of the Late Paleolithic and Early Holocene," Archaeological Papers of the American Anghropological Association, 12 (1) 103-116, 2002.

    Erlandson, J., Moss, M., Des Lauriers, M., “Life on the edge: early maritime cultures of the Pacific coast of North America, Quaternary Science Reviews, 27, 2008.

    Etler, D., “The Fossil Evidence for Human Evolution in Asia,” Annual Review of Anthropology, 25, 1996.

    Etler, D., “Homo erectus in East Asia: Human Ancestor or Evolutionary Dead-End?” Athena Review, 4(1) [Cannot locate year. The author is from Department of Anthropology, Cabrillio college, Aptos, California.]

    Etler, D., Crummett, T., Wolpoff, M., “Longgupo: Early Homo Colonizer or Late Pliocene Lufengpithecus Survivor in South China?” Human Evolution, 16(1-12), 2001.

    Farina, R., Vizcaino, S. Iuliis, Megafauna: Giant Beasts of Pleistocene South America, Indiana University Press, 2013.

    Fell, B., America B.C., Artisan Publishers, 2010.

    Fiedel, Stuart J., “Older Than We Thought: Implications of Corrected Dates for Paleoindians,” American Antiquity, 64(1), 1999.

    Finlayson, Clive, The HUMANS WHO WENT EXTINCT, Why Neanderthals died out and we survived. Oxford University Press, 2009.

    Fitzhugh, W., “Stone Shamans and Flying Deer of Northern Mongolia: Deer Goddess of Siberia or Chimera of the Steppe?” Arctic Anthropology, 46(1-2) 2009.

    Flam, F.: “Red hair a part of the Neanderthal genetic profile” The Philadelphia Inquirer, October 26, 2007.

    Flannery, T., The Eternal Frontier, Atlantic Monthly Press, New York, 2001.

    Forster, P., Harding, R., Torroni, A., and Bandelt, H. J., “Origin and Evolution of Native American mtDNA Variation: A Reappraisal,” The American Journal of Human Genetics, 59(4): 1996.

    Froehle, A., Churchill, S., “Energetic Competition Between Neandertals and Anatomically Modern Humans,” PaleoAnthropology, 2009.

    Froese, T., Woodward, A., Ikegami, T., "Turing instabilities in biology, culture, and consciousness? On the enactive origins of symbolic mateiral culture," Adaptive Behavior, 2 (3).

    Gilbert, M. T. P., Jenkins, D. L., Götherstrom, A., Naveran, N. Sanchez, J. J., Hofreiter, M., Thomsen, P. F., Binladen, J., Higham, T. F. G., Yohe, R. M., II, Parr, R. Cummings, L. S. Willerslev, E., “DNA from Pre-Clovis Human Coprolites in Oregon, North America,” Science Express, April 2008.

    Gilligan, I., “The Prehistoric Development of clothing: Archaeological Implications of a thermal Model,” Journal of Archaeological Method Theory, 17, 2010.

    Gladyshev, S., Olsen, J., Tabarev, A., Kuzmin, Y., “Peleoenvironment. The Stone Age: Chronology and Periodization of Upper Paleolithic Sites in Mongolia.” Archaeology Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia, 38(3), 2010.

    Goebel, T., Waters, M., Dikova, M., “The Archaeology of Ushki Lake, Kamchatka, and the Pleistocene Peopling of the Americas,” Science, 301(5632), 2003.

    Goebel, T., et al, "The Late Pleistocene Dispersal of Modern Humans in the Americas, Science, 319, 1497, 2008.

    Goldberg, E., Chebykin, E., Zhuchenko, N., Vorobyeva, S., Stepanova, O., Khlystov, O., Ivanov, E., Weinberg, E, Gvozdkov, A., “Uranium isotopes as proxies of the Lake Baikal watershed (East Siberia) during the past 150 ka,” Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 294(1-2) August 2010.

    Golubenko, M. V., Stepanov, V. A., Gubina, M. A., Zhadanov, S. I., Ossipova, L. Pl, Damba, L., Voevoda, M. I., Dipierri, J. E., Villems, R., Malhi, R. S., Beringian “Standstill and Spread of Native American Founders,” PLoS ONE 2(9): eB29. doi10.1371/journal.pone.0000829.

    Goodyear, Albert C., “Evidence for Pre-Clovis Sites in the Eastern United States,” unpublished and undated manuscript, [no longer has active link]

    Grayson, D., Meltzer, D., “A requiem for North American overkill,” Journal of Archaeological Science, 30(5), 2003.

    Grove, C., “Ice-age child's remains discovered in Interior,” Anchorage Daily News, 2/24/2011

    Hall, R., “Cenozoic plate tectonic reconstruction of SE Asia,” from Fraser, L., Matthews, S., Murphy, R., (Eds.), Petroleum Geology of Southeast Asia, Geological Society of London Special Publication 26, 1997.

    Hapgood, C., Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings, Adventures Unlimited Press, 1966.

    Hardaker, C., The First American: the Suppressed Story of the People Who Discovered the New World, New Page Books, 2007.

    Haynes, C,. V., Jr., “Younger Dryas ‘Black mats’ and the Rancholabrean termination in North America,” National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 2008. (See also: for photographs http://www.georgehoward.net/Vance%20Haynes'%20Black%20Mat.htm)

    Henry, A., Brooks, A., Piperno, D., “Microfossils in calculus demonstrate consumption of plants and cooked foods in Neanderthal diets,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(2), 2010.

    Hoffecker, J. F., A Prehistory of the North: Human Settlement of the Higher Latitudes, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 2005.

    Honeychurch, W., Amartuvshin, C., “Hinterlands, Urban Centers, and Mobile Settings: The 'New' Old World Archaeology from the Eurasian Steppe,” Asian Perspectives, 46(1) 2007.

    Hopkins, D. M., Matthews, J. V, Jr., Schweger, C. E., Young, S. B., Paleoecology of Beringia, Academic Press, New York, 1982.

    Huyghe, P., Columbus Was Last: From 200,000 B.C. To 1492 A Heretical History of Who Was First, Anomalist Books, 1992.

    Igarashi, Y., Zharov, A., “Climate and vegetation change during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene in Sakhalin and Hokkaido, northeast Asia,” Quaternary International, xxx (in process), 2011.

    Inman, M.: “Neanderthals Had Same 'Language Gene' as Modern Humans,” National Geographic News, October 18, 2007, http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/10/071018-neandertal-gene.html

    Irwin-Williams, Cynthia, "Dilemma Posed by Uranium-Series Dates on Archaeologically Significant Bones from Valsequillo, Puebla, Mexico," Earth and Planetary Science Letters 6 (1969) 237-244, North Holland Publishing Comp., Amsterdam.

    Jackinsky, M., “Evidence of woolly mammoths on Peninsula grows,” Alaska Daily News, 3/13/2011.

    Jackson, Jr., L. E., Wilson, M. C., “The Ice-Free Corridor Revisited,” Geotimes, Feb. 2004.

    Jiang, Y-E., Chen, X-Y, Yang, J-X., “Threatened fishes of the world: Yunnanilus discoloris Zhou & He 1989 (Cobitidae),” Environmental Biology of Fishes, 86(1), 2009.

    Jin, J. J. H., Shipman, P., “documenting natural wear on antlers: A first step in identifying use-wear on purported antler tools,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2) 2010.

    Johnson, John F. C., Chugach Legends: Stories and Photographs of the Chugach Region, Chugach Alaska Corporation, 1984.

    Joling, D., “Warming brings unwelcome change to Alaska villages,” Anchorage Daily News, 3/27/ 2011.

    Joly, L. G., Guerra, S., Septimo, R., Solis, P. N., Correa, M. D., Gupta, M. P., Lrvy, S., Sandberg, F., Perera, P., "Ethnobotanical Inventory of Medicinal Plants Used by the Guaymi Indians in Western Panama, Part II." Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 28 (1990).

    Jones, Anore, Plants That We Eat: Nauriat Niginaqtuat, University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks, 2010.

    Joseph, F., Discovering the Mysteries of Ancient America: Lost History and Legends, Unearthed and Explored, New Page Books, 2006.

    Khenzykhenova, F., “Paleoenvironments of Palaeolithic humans in the Baikal region,” Quaternary International, 179(1), 2008.

    Khenzykhenova, F., Sato, T., Lipnina, E., Medvedev, G., Kato, H., Kogai, S., Maximenko, K., Novosel'zeva, V., “Upper paleolithic mammal fauna of the Baikal region, east Siberia (new data),” Quaternary International, 231, 2011.

    Kienast, F., Schirrmeister, L., Siegert, C., Tarasov, P., “Palaeobotanical evidence for warm summers in the East Siberian Arctic during the last cold stage,” Quaternary Research, 63(3), 2005.

    King, G., Bailey, G., “Tectonics and human evolution,” Antiquity, 80, 2006.

    Klein, H. S., Schiffner, D. C., “The Current Debate about the Origins of the Paleoindian of America,” Journal of Social History, 37(2), Winter 2003.

    Kolomiets, V. L., Gladyshev, S. A., Bezrukova, E. V., Rybin, E. P., Letunova, P. P., Abzaeva, A. A., “Paleoenvironment The Stone Age: Environment and human behavior in northern Mongolia during the Upper Pleistocene,” Archaeology, Ethnology, and Anthropology of Eurasia, 37(1), 2009.

    Komatsu, G., Olsen, J., Ormo, J., Di. Achille, G., Kring, D., Matsui T., “The Tsenkher structure in the Gobi-Altai, Mongolia: Geomorphological hints of an impact origin,” Geomorphology, 74(1-4), March 2006.

    Kornfeld, M., Larson, M. L., “Bonebeds and other myths: Paleoindian to Archaic transition on North American Great Plains and Rocky Mountains,” Quaternary International, 191(1), 2008.

    Krause, J., Orlando, L., Serre, D., Viola, B., Prüfer, K., Richards, M., Hublin, J., Hänni, C., Derevianko, A., Pääbo, S., “Neanderthals in central Asia and Siberia,” Nature LETTERS, 449, 2007.

    Kunz, Michael, M. Bever, C. Adkins, The Mesa Site: Paleoindians above the Arctic Circle, U. S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, BLM-Alaska Open File Report 86, BLM/AK/ST-03/001+8100+020, April 2003.

    Kurochkin, E., Kuzmin, Y., Antoshchenko-Olenev, I., Zabelin, V., Krivonogov, S., Nohrina, T., Lbova, L., Burr, G, and Cruz, R., “The timing of ostrich existence in Central Asia: AMS 14C age of eggshells from Mongolia and southern Siberia (a pilot study)," Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 268(7-8), April 2010

    Kuzmin, Y., Orlova, L., “Radiocarbon chronology and environment of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius Blum.) in northern Asia: results and perspectives,” Earth-Science Reviews, 68, 2004.

    Kuzmin, Y., Richards, M., Yoneda, M., “Paleodietary Patterning and Radiocarbon Dating of Neolithic Populations in the Primorye Province, Russian Far East,” Ancient Biomolecules, 4(2), 2002.

    Lam, Y. M., Brunson, K, Meadow, R., Yuan, J., “Integrating taphonomy into the practice of zooarchaeology in China,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), 2010.

    Langdon, Steve J., Native People of Alaska: Traditional Living in a Northern Land, Greatland Graphics, 2008.

    Lee, H., “Paleoenvironment: The Stone Age. Projectile Points and Their Implications,” Archaeology Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia, 38(3), 2010.

    Lell, J. T., Sukernik, R. I., Starikovskaya, Y. B., Su, B., Jin, L., Schurr, T. G., Underhill, P. A., Wallace, D. C., “The Dual Origin and Siberian Affinities of Native American Y Chromosomes,” The American Journal of Human Genetics, 70, 2002.

    Lister, A., Bahn, P. G., Mammoths: Giants of the Ice Age, Richard Green Publisher, 1994.

    Liu, W., Wu, X., Pei, S., Wu, Xiujie, Norton, C. J., “Huanglong Cave: A Late Pleistocene human fossil site in Hubei Province, China,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), 2010.

    Lu, X., Xiong, D., Chen, C., “Threatened fishes of the world: Sinocyclocheilus grahami (Regan 1904) (Cyprinidae),” Environmental Biology of Fishes, 85(2), 2009.

    Ma, S., Wang, Y., Xu, L., “Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Studies on the Genus Muntiacus,” Acta Theriologica Sinica VI(3) 1986. (Translated by Will Downs, Dept of Geology, Bilby Research Center, Northern Arizona Univ., 1991)

    Macé, F., “Human Rhythm and Divine Rhythm in Ainu Epics,” Diogenes, 46(1), 1998.

    Marwick, b., “Biogeography of Middle Pleistocene hominins in mainland Southeast Asia: A review of current evidence,” Quaternary International, 202(1-2), 2009.

    Mednikova, M., Dobrovolskaya, M., Buzhilova, A., Kandinov, M., “A Fossil Human Humerus from Khvalynsk: Morphology and Taxonomy,” Archaeology Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia, 38(1), 2010.

    Meltzer, D., First Peoples in a New World: Colonizing Ice Age America, University of California Press, 2009.

    Merriwether, D. A., Hall, W. W., Vahine, A., and Ferrell, R. E., “mtDNA Variation Indicates Mongolia May Have Been the Source for the Founding Population for the New World,” The American Journal of Human Genetics, 59, 1996.

    Mol, D., de Vos, J., van der Plicht, J., “The presence and extinction of Elephas antiquus Falconer and Cautley, 1847, in Europe,” Quaternary International, 169-170, 2007.

    Moncel, M., “Oldest human expansions in Eurasia: Favouring and limiting factors,” Quaternary International, 223-4, 2010.

    Mueller, Tom, "Ice Baby: Secrets of a Frozen Mammoth," National Geographic, 215, 5, May 2009

    Naske, C-M., Slotnick, H. E., Alaska A History of the 49th State, 2nd Ed., University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1979.

    Neel, J. V., Biggar, R. J., Sukernik, R. I., “Virologic and genetic studies relate Amerind origins to the indigenous people of the Mongolia/Manchuria/southeastern Siberia region,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 91, 1994.

    Nikolskiy, P. A., Basilyan, A. E., Sulerzhitsky, L. D., and Pitulko, V. V., “Prelude to the extinction: Revision of the Achchagyl-Allaikha and Berelyokh mass accumulations of mammoth,” Quaternary International, 219(1-2), 2010.

    Norton, C. J., “The nature of megafaunal extinctions during the MIS 3-2 transition in Japan,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), 2010.

    Norton, C. J., Jin, J. J. H., “Hominin morphological and behavioral variation in eastern Asia and Australasia: current perspectives,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), 2010.

    O'Connell, L., "Sifting Through Garbage from the End of the Ice Age: It's a LIving for Frontier Scientists," Anchorage Daily News, June 1, 2011.

    O’Neill, D., The Last Giant of Beringia: The Mystery of the Bering Land Bridge, Westview Press, Perseus Books Group, New York, 2004.

    Oppenheimer, S., “The great arc of dispersal of modern humans: Africa to Australia,” Quaternary International, 202(1-2), 2009.

    Orlova, L. A., Kuzmin, Y. V., Stuart, A. J., Tikhonov, A. N., “Chronology and environment of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach) extinction in northern Asia,” The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome 2001.

    Osipov, E., Khlystov, O., “Glaciers and meltwater flux to Lake Baikal during the Last Glacial Maximum,” Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 294(1-2) 2010.

    Palombo, M. R., “Quaternary mammal communities at a glance,” Quaternary International, 212(2), 2010.

    Park, S., “L'hominidé du Pléistocène supérieur en Corée, L'anthropologie, 110, 2006.

    Pei, S., Gao, X., Feng, X., Chen, F., Dennell, R., “Lithic assemblage from the Jingshuiwan Paleolithic site of the early Late Pleistocene in the Three Gorges, China,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), January 2010.

    Perkins, Sid, "DNA study links indigenous Brazilians to Polynesians," April 1, 2013, Nature.

    Pietrusewsky, M., “A multivariate analysis of measurements recorded in early and more modern crania from East Asia and Southeast Asia,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), 2010.

    Pimenoff, V., Comas, D., Palo, J., Vershubsky, G., Kozlov, A, Sajantila, A., “Northwest Siberian Khanty and Mansi in the junction of West and East Eurasian gene pools as revealed by uniparental markers,” European Journal of Human Genetics, 16, 2008.

    Pitulko, V., “The Berelekh Quest: A Review of Forty Years of Research in the Mammoth Graveyard in Northeast Siberia," Geoarchaeology, 26(1), 2011.

    Ponce de León, M., Golovanova, L., Doronichev, V., Romanova, G., Akazaqa, T., Kondo, O., Ishida, H., Zollikofer, C., “Neanderthal brain size at birth provides insights into the evolution of human life history,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(37), Sept 2008.

    Potter, B. A., Reuther, J. D., Bowers, P. M., and Relvin-Reymiller, C., “Little Delta Dune Site: A Late-Pleistocene Multicomponent Site in Central Alaska,” Archaeology: North America, CRP 25, 2008.

    Powell, E., “Mongolia,” Archaeology, 59(1) Jan/Feb 2006.

    Pratt, Verna E., Field Guide to Alaskan WILDFLOWERS Commonly seen along the Highways and Byways, 1989 Alaskakrafts, Inc.

    Prokopenko, A., Kuzmin, M., Li, H., Woo, K., Catto, N., “Lake Hovsgol basin as a new study site for long continental paleoclimate records in continental interior Asia: General contest and current status,” Quaternary International, 205, 2009.

    Quade, J., Forester, R. M., Pratt, W. L., Carter, C., “Black Mats, Spring-Fed Streams, and Late-Glacial-Age Recharge in the Southern Great Basin,” Quaternary Research, 49(2) 1998.

    Ransom, J. E., “Derivation of the Word Alaska,” American Anthropologist, 42, 1942.

    Razjigaeva, N., Korotky, A., Grebennikova, T., Ganzey, L., Mokhova, L., Bazarova, V. Sulerzhitsky, L., Lutaenko, K., “Holocene climatic changes and environmental history of Iturup Island, Kurile Islands, northwestern Pacific,” The Holocene, 12, 2002.

    Reich, D., et al., "Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia," Nature, 468, 7327, 2010.

    Rose, W. I., Chesner, C. A., “Dispersal of ash in the great Toba Eruption, 74 ka,” Geology, 15, 1987.

    Rudaya, N., Tarasov, P., Dorofeyuk, N., Solovieva, N., Kalugin, I., Andreev, Daryin, A., Diekmann, B., Riedel, F., Tserendash, N., Wagner, M., “Holocene environments and climate in the Mongolian Altai reconstructed from the Hoton-Nur pollen and diatom records: a step towards better understanding climate dynamics in Central Asia,” Quaternary Science Reviews, 28(5-6) 2009.

    Russell, Priscilla N., Tanaina Plantlore Dena'ina K'et'una: An Ethnobotany of the Dena'ina Indians of Southcentral Alaska, Alaska Geographic Association, 2012.

    Ruvinsky, J., “The Great American Extinction,” Discover, 28(8) 2007.

    Saillard, J., Forster, P., Lynnerup, N., Bandelt, H.-J., Nørby, S., “mtDNA Variation among Greenland Eskimos: The Edge of the Beringian Expansion,” The Journal of Human Genetics, 2000 September 67(3): 718-726.

    Saleeby, B. M., “Out of Place Bones: beyond the study of prehistoric subsistence,” Arctic Research of the United States, U. S. National Science Foundation, 2002.

    Sattler, H. R., The Earliest Americans, Clarion Books, New York, 1993.

    Schepartz, L. A., Miller-Antonio, S., “Taphonomy, Life History, and Human Exploitation of Rhinoceros sinensis at the Middle Pleistocene site of Panxian Dadong, Guizhou, China,” International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 2008.

    Schrenk, F., Muller, S. The Neanderthals, Routledge, 2005.

    Seong, C., “Tanged points, microblades and Late Palaeolithic hunting in Korea,” Antiquity, 82, 2008.

    Shen, G., Fang, Y., Bischoff, J. L., Feng, Y., and Zhao, J., “Mass spectrometric U-series dating of the Chaoxian hominin site at Yinshan, eastern China,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2), 2010.

    Shepherd, Jill, "Winter Green," Alaska, February, 1999.

    Sher, A., Weinstock, J., Baryshnikov, G., Davydov, S., Boeskorov, G., Zazhigin, V., Nikolskiy, P., “The first record of 'spelaeoid' bears in Arctic Siberia, Quaternary Science Reviews, 30, 2010.

    Shichi, K., Takahara, H., Krivonogov, S., Bezrukova, E., Kashiwaya, K., Takehara, A., Nakamura, T., “Late Pleistocene and Holocene vegetation and climate records from Lake Kotokel, central Baikal region,” Quaternary International, 205, 2009.

    Smith, T., Toussaint, M., Reid, D., Olejniczak, A., Hublin, J., “Rapid dental development in a Middle Paleolithic Belgian Neanderthal,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(51), Dec. 2007.

    Snodgrass, J., Leonard, W., “Neandertal Energetics Revisited: Insight Into Population Dynamics and Life History Evolution,” PaleoAnthropology, 2009.

    Starikovskaya, Y. B., Sukernik, R. I., Schurr, T. G., Kogelnik, A. M., and Wallace, D. C. “mtDNA diversity in Chukchi and Siberian Eskimos: Implications for the Genetic History of Ancient Beringia and the Peopling of the New World,” The American Journal of Human Genetics, 63, 1998.

    Stephan, A. E., The First Athabascans of Alaska: Strawberries, Dorrance Publishing Co, Inc., Pittsburg, 1996.

    Stone, R., “A Surprising Survival Story in the Siberian Arctic,” Science, 303(5642): 2004.

    Stringer, C., Finlayson, J., Barton, R., Fernández-Jalvo, Y., Cáceres, I., Sabin, R., Rhodes, E., Currant, A., Rodriguez-Vidal, J., Giles-Pacheco, F., Riquelme-Cantal, J., “Neanderthal exploitation of marine mammals in Gibraltar,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(38) Sept. 2008.

    Stringer, C., Lone Survivors: How We Came To Be the Only Humans on Earth. Times Books, Henry Holt & Co., LLC, New York, 2012.

    Strong, S., “The Most Revered of Foxes: Knowledge of Animals and Animal Power in an Ainu Kamui Yukar,Asian Ethnology, 68(1), 2009.

    Sunnyboy, Audrey, Denyaavee: Medicinal Plants of Interior Alaska's People, Audrey Sunnyboy, 2007.

    Sykes, B., The Seven Daughters of Eve, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 2001.

    Szathmary, E. J. E., “mtDNA and the Peopling of the Americas,” The Journal of Human Genetics, 53, 1993.

    Tamm, E., Kivisild, T., Reidla, M., Metspalu, M., Smith, D. G., Mulligan, C. J., Bravi, C. M., Rickards, O., Martinez-Labarga, C., Khusnutdinova, E. K., Fedorova, S. A., Torroni, A., Neel, J. V., Barrantes, R., Schurr, T. G., “Mitochondrial DNA ‘clock’ for the Amerinds and its implications for timing their entry into North America,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 91, 1994.

    Tarasov, P., Williams, J., Andreev, A., Nakagawa, T., Bezrukova, E., Herzschuh, U., Igarashi, Y., Müller, S., Werner, K., Zheng, Z., “Satellite- and polllen-based quantitative woody cover reconstructions for northern Asia: Verification and application to late-Quaternary pollen data,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 264(1-2), 2007.

    Tattersall, I., Masters of the Planet, The Search for Our Human Origins, Palgrace Macmillan, 2012

    Than, K., “Neanderthals, Humans Interbred—First Solid DNA Evidence: Most of us have some Neanderthal genes, study finds,” May 6, 2010 for National Geographic News, http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/05/100506-science-neanderthals-humans-mated-interbred-dna-gene/

    Tianyuan, L., Etler, D., “New Middle Pleistocene hominid crania from Yunxian in China,” Nature, 357, June 1992.

    Tong, H., Moigne, A-M., “Quaternary Rhinoceros of China,” in English, Acta Anthropologica Sinica, Supplement to Volume 19, 2000.

    Torroni, A., Sukernik, R. I., Schurr, Tl G., Starikovskaya, Y. B., Cabell, M. F., Crawford, M. H., Comuzzie, A. G., Wallace, D. C., “mtDNA Variations of Aboriginal Siberians Reveals distinct Genetic Affinities with Native Americans,” The American Journal of Human Genetics, 53, 1993.

    Vasil’ev, S. A., Kuzmin, Y. V., Orlova, L. A., Dementiev, V. N., “Radiocarbon-Based Chronology of the Paleolithic in Siberia and Its Relevance to the Peopling of the New World,” Radiocarbon, 44(2), 2002.

    Vergano, D., "Modern humanity's ancient cousins, the Neanderthals, lived in small groups that were isolated from one another, suggests an investigation into their DNA. The analysis also finds that Neanderthals lacked some human genes that are linked to our behavior," National Geographic, April 22, 2014.

    Vialet, A., Guipert, G., Jianing, H., Xiaobo, F., Zune, L., Youping, W., de Lumley, M.-A., de Lumley, H., “Homo erectus from the Yunxian and Nankin Chinese sites: Anthropological insights using 3D virtual imaging techniques,” Comptes Rendus Palevol 9(6-7), 2010.

    Viereck, Eleanor G., Alaska's Wilderness Medicines: Healthful Plants of the Far North, Alaska Northwest Books, 1987.

    Volodko, N. V., Starikovskaya, E. B., Mazunin, I. O., Eltsov, N. P., Naidenko, P. V., Wallace, D. C., and Sukernik, R. I., “Mitochondrial Genome Diversity in Arctic Siberians, with Particular Reference to the Evolutionary History of Beringia and Pleistocenic Peopling of the Americas,” American Journal of Human Genetics, 82(5), 2008.

    Wagner, D. P., McAvoy, J. M., “Pedoarchaeology of Cactus Hill, a sandy Paleoindian site in southeastern Virginia, U. S. A.” Geoarchaeology, 19(4), 2004.

    Waguespack, N. M., Surovell, T. A., “Clovis Hunting Strategies, or How to Make Out on Plentiful Resources,” American Antiquity, 68(2), 2003.

    Wang, J., “Late Paleozoic macrofloral assemblages from Weibel coalfield, with reference to vegetational change through the Late Paleozoic Ice-age in the North China Block,” International Journal of Coal Geology, 83(2-3), 2010.

    Wang, S., Liu, H., Zhang, H., Sun, X., Yi, S., Chen, Y., Zhang, G., Xing, L., Sun, W., "Newly discovered Palaeolithic artefacts from loess deposits and their ages in Lantian, central China, Chin. Sci. Bull. (2014) 59(7):651-661.

    Waters, Michael R. et al., "Redefining the Age of Clovis: Implications for the Peopling of hte Americas," Science, 315, 1122, 2007.

    Waters-Rist, A., Bazaliiskii, V. I., Weber, A, Goriunova, O. I., Katzenberg, A., “Activity-induced dental modification in holocene Siberian hunter-fisher-gatherers,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 143(2), 2010.

    Wendorf, F., Hester, J., (eds.) Late Pleistocene Environments of the Southern High Plains, Ft. Burgwin Research Center, Inc. Southern Methodist University, 1973.

    West, F. H., Ed., AMERICAN BEGINNINGS: the Prehistory and Palaeoecology of Beringia, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1996.

    Wiedmer, M., Montgomery, D., Gillespie, A., Greenberg, H., “Late Quaternary megafloods from Glaial Lake Atna, Southcentral Alaska, U.S.A., Quaternary Research, 73, 2010.

    Woodman, N., Athfield, N., “Post-Clovis survival of American Mastodon in the southern Great Lakes Region of North America,” Quaternary Research, 72(3), 20009.

    Wu, X., “Fossil Humankind and Other Anthropoid Primates of China,” International Journal of Primatology, 25(5) 2004.

    Wu, X., “On the origins of modern humans in China,” Quaternary International, 117(1), 2004.

    Wu, X., Schepartz, L. A., Norton, C. J., “Morphological and morphometric analysis of variation in the Zhoukoudian Homo erectus brain endocasts,” Quaternary International, 211(1-2) 2010.

    Wu, Y-S., Chen, Y-S., Xiao, J-Y., “A preliminary study on vegetation and climate changes in Dianchi Lake area in the last 40,000 years,” partial in English, Acta Botanica Sinica, 33(5), 1991.

    Wynn, T., Coolidge, F. L., How to Think like a Neanderthal, Oxford University Press, 2012.

    Xiao, J., Jin, C., Zhu, Y., “Age of the fossil Dali Man in north-central China deduced from chronostratigraphy of the loess-paleosol sequence,” Quaternary Science Reviews, 21, 2002.

    Xiangcan, J., “Lake Dianchi,” Experience and Lessons Learned Brief, final version 2004.

    Xu, J-X., Ferguson, D. K., Li, C-S., Wang, Y-F., “Late Miocene vegetation and the climate of the Lühe region in Yunnan, southwestern China,” Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 148(1), 2008.

    Yahner, R. H., “Barking in a primitive ungulate, Muntiacus reevesi: function and adaptiveness,” The American Naturalist, 116(2), 1980.

    Zang, W., Wang, Y., Zheng, S., Yang, X., Li, Y., Fu, X., Li, N., “Taxonomic investigations on permineralized conifer woods from the Late Paleozoic Angaran deposits of northeastern Inner Mongolia, China, and their palaeoclimatic significance,” Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 144(3-4), May 2007.

    Zhang, Y., Stiner, M, Dennell, R., Wang, C., Zhang, Sh, Gao, X., "Zooarchaeological perspectives on the Chinese Early and Late Paleolithic from the Ma'anshan site (Guizhou, South China)," Journal of Archaeological Science, 37(8), 2010.

    Zhu, R., An, Z., Potts, R., Hoffman, K., “Magnetostratigraphic dating of early humans in China,” Earth-Science Reviews, 61(3-4) June 2003.

    Zorich, Z., “Did Homo erectus Coddle His Grandparents?” Discover, 27(1) Jan. 2006.

    No author designated. “Bone fossil points to a mystery human species,” USA Today, Mar 25, 2010. [Three types of humans lived within 60 miles of each other in southern Siberia.]

    WEBSITES: Note----If the list in the novel doesn't correspond with the list here, there are two main reasons why. (1) New information has been added. (2) Links no longer go to active sites so they have been eliminated. I have removed the inactive links from this list but retained them in the book, because they were resources.


    The Climate Connection

    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.
    • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
    • Online publication date: August 2012
    • Print publication year: 2010
    • Online ISBN: 9780511750397
    • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511750397
    • Subjects: Earth and Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Evolutionary Biology, Climatology and Climate Change

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Book description

    Highlights the influence of saltatory evolution and rapid climate change on human evolution, migration and behavioural change. Growing concern over the potential impacts of climate change on our future is clearly evident. In order to better understand our present circumstances and deal effectively with future climate change, society needs to become more informed about the historical connection between climate and humans. The authors' combined research in the fields of climate change, evolutionary biology, Earth sciences and human migration and behaviour complement each other, and have facilitated an innovative and integrated approach to the human evolution-climate connection. The Climate Connection provides an in-depth text linking 135,000 years of climate change with human evolution and implications for our future, for those working and interested in the field and those embarking on upper-level courses on this topic.

    Reviews

    ‘Hetherington and Reid have undertaken the first comprehensive scientific review and analysis of the connections between human biology and its evolution, human pre-history and history on a global basis, and of planetary and regional climate throughout time as it has affected all biological life, including the activities of humans and their societies. The result is a very readable story, meticulously researched and well referenced, of us as human animals: what we are as well as who we are and how we got that way, of our genetic make-up and adaptations, of the development of behavioural capacities to cope with changes in our environment, and how successive fairly sudden changes in climate at long intervals have stressed human populations and stimulated the survivors to develop new capacities and new tools, and thus ultimately to result in our present societies, institutions and behaviours, which in the last century are themselves bringing about changes in climate that threaten new or catastrophic stresses. It is a profound and vitally important story, and one that provides a solid scientific background to our current environmental, social, economic, and political dilemmas. This book is a significant contribution to the understanding of perhaps the most serious issue of our times.’

    Fred Roots - Science Advisor Emeritus, Environment Canada and Chair of the Canadian National Committee for the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme


    Watch the video: Defined by our ancestors; Drawing a line under the Homo erectus story from Ngandong, Java (August 2022).