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Lucius Tarquinius Superbus

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus



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Lucius Tarquinius Superbus ('Tarquin the Proud') was traditionally the seventh and last king of ancient Rome before it became a republic. He belonged to the Etruscan Tarquinii clan, reigned from 534 to 510 BCE, and was infamous for his tyrannical rule, although Rome did enlarge its territory in that time. Following his exile after the infamous rape of Lucretia by his son Sextus, he joined forces with the Etruscan king Lars Porsenna who besieged Rome c. 508 BCE. Porsenna did not restore Tarquinius to the throne, though, and the ex-king fled to Cumae where he died in 495 BCE.

Accession

As with much of Rome's early history, where legend replaces actual facts, the chronology and events of Lucius Tarquinius' life are often confused and irreconcilable. Some ancient sources have Lucius Tarquinius the son of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth king of Rome (r. 616 - 579 BCE) who was originally from the Etruscan city of Tarquinia, some 90 km north of Rome. However, these dates do not match, and so they are either wrong or Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was the grandson of Priscus.

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus' wife was Tullia, the younger daughter of Servius Tullius, Rome's 6th king. Together they arranged, first to kill Tullia's husband, Arruns Tarquinius, and then murder the king, allowing Lucius Tarquinius to seize the throne. Shockingly, Tullia was said to have run over her father's corpse in her chariot splattering blood all over her clothes (even a woman riding a chariot was unthinkable to the Romans, nevermind the lack of family respect). Again according to the Roman historian Livy, the new king swiftly removed all dissenting senators and established himself as the dictator of Rome, modelling his reign on the Greek tyrants of that period. Such colourful descriptions by a Roman author writing five centuries after the events are likely tinged with a bias eager to display the difference between virtuous republic-loving Romans and dastardly foreign kings from immoral Etruria.

Lucius Tarquinius' early reign saw the king embark on a campaign of ambitious expansion, waging war against the Etruscans, Volci, & Latins.

Tarquinius' Reign

Lucius Tarquinius' early reign saw the king embark on a campaign of ambitious expansion, waging war against the Etruscans, Volci, and Latins. He firmly established Rome at the head of the Latin League, now a more military-oriented association, and conquered several Latin towns. Warfare was coupled with diplomacy, and treaties and alliances were made with Latin towns, notably with Tusculum, whose ruler Octavius Mamilius married Lucius Tarquinius' daughter. In 510 or 509 BCE, Rome's status as an important power was confirmed with the signing of its first treaty with Carthage. Another achievement was to complete construction of the massive Temple of Capitoline Jupiter in Rome, a project begun by Tarquinius Priscus and finished by Etruscan sculptors imported especially for the job. Lucius Tarquinius also added seats to the Circus Maximus and extended the Cloaca Maxima drainage system, although his use of forced labour from the plebs aroused wide discontent amongst the populace.

Rape of Lucretia & Exile

The end of Lucius Tarquinius' reign, the Tarquinian clan in Rome, and the monarchy of early Rome itself, all came to an end in the final decade of the 6th century BCE. As with every other part of the king's life, the legend of his downfall has been confused and manipulated over time and by later Roman writers in order to paint an idealised and symbolic transition from monarchy to republic. The spark that set ablaze the ruins of Lucius Tarquinius' reign was the rape of Lucretia. Lucretia was the wife of Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, great nephew of Tarquinius Priscus, and she was raped at knifepoint by Sextus, the son of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. Following her perceived dishonour of this attack, she committed suicide and thus became forever after a symbol of Roman matronly chastity. Lucius Iunius Brutus (who on the spot swore an oath of revenge for Lucretia) and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus used the tragedy as a catalyst for ridding Rome of their tyrannical king, at that time laying siege to Ardea, and thus set themselves up as Rome's first consuls in 509 BCE. Once again, the legend conveniently portrays the Etruscans as lacking any class and the Romans as saviours of virtue, but, in all probability, the whole story covers a more mundane dynastic struggle for power between the royal household and the upper aristocracy which were both, perhaps uncomfortably so for later Roman writers, largely of Etruscan origin.

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Brutus soon went one step further and seized the opportunity to do away with the whole Tarquinian clan, including Collatinus (this version rather glosses over the fact that Brutus was himself the nephew of Tarquinius Superbus). This he achieved with the backing of the Roman people. These legendary events were further embellished with Brutus killing two of Collatinus' sons when they tried to restore their father, additions made for political expediency following the assassination of Julius Caesar by the descendant of Brutus, Marcus Iunius Brutus in the 1st century BCE and made to show that Brutus and the Iunii Bruti were not blameless defenders of Republican ideals. Returning to our story, Rome was now indeed a republic, but Lucius Tarquinius Superbus would not give up his throne so easily.

Lars Porsenna & Death

Following his exile from Rome, Lucius Tarquinius joined forces with the Etruscan cities of Cerveteri, Tarquinia, and Veii. A force attacked Rome but was defeated at the battle of Silva Arsia. Undeterred, Lucius Tarquinius then convinced the king of Chiusi, Lars Porsenna, to lay siege to Rome c. Traditionally, this second attack was seen as an attempt to restore Rome's monarchy and Lucius Tarquinius to the throne, but following Porsenna's siege of the city, he instead did one of two things. Version one has Porsenna finally withdrawing after being impressed with the city's fortitude and moving off to attack the Latin town of Aricia instead, albeit without success. Version two of the story, the more credible one, has Porsenna victorious and Rome surrendering to the Etruscan king, who then, far from reinstalling Superbus, acted to abolish the monarchy of Rome and then used the city as a base to attack the Latin cities starting with Aricia in 504 BCE.

Superbus would indeed turn out to be Rome's last king, and the Republic set off on its road to greatness. Meanwhile, the ex-king was forced to seek refuge with his son-in-law Octavius Mamilius, the dictator of the Latins (according to one version of the legend), who sought, rather improbably given the longtime rivalry between Rome and the Latin cities, to restore Lucius Tarquinius to the throne. Following Mamilius' defeat at the Battle of Lake Regillus (499 or 496 BCE) to the Romans aided by Castor and Pollux, Lucius Tarquinius moved on to Cumae in Campania where he was hosted by the tyrant Aristodemus until his death in 495 BCE.


Tarquin

–Tarquin taunting Hazel shortly before the battle goes in her favor in The Tyrant's Tomb.

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, better known as simply Tarquin, was the seventh and final king of Rome, having reigned for 25 years before it became a republic. He was the main antagonist and titular character of The Tyrant's Tomb.Tarquin was killed by Diana, who was summoned by her twin to help defeat him.


The Preparation

We already know that Lucius Tarquinius (Superus) was married to a daughter of king Servius Tullius (she was called Tullia). His brother Arruns was also married to a king’s daughter (also called Tullia). The problem was that his brother’s Tullia appealed much more to Lucius’ heart than his own wife. The two shared an ambitious and energetic soul – both were fierce, arrogant and bold, while Arruns and the other Tullia displayed much calmer personalities.

The fierce Tullia is said to set the wheels in motion. She desired to rule as a queen and saw the opportunity to do so through Lucius much more than through her own husband. Moreover, she couldn’t stand that good-for-nothing sister of hers, who, thanks to a sheer and unjust strike of luck, got to be married to the more capable of the Tarquin boys. She started to influence Lucius as strongly as a woman can, by seducing him and by bad-mouthing her sister and her husband. Lucius finally made up his mind about getting his Etruscan buttocks on the royal throne that rightfully belonged to him. He was totally going for it! But those two unmotivated and stupid nobodies (his wife and brother) would just slow him down, not like the sister-in-law Tullia who perfectly understood and supported his ambitions. They came up with a simple solution – a double murder. This surprising move would be enough for him to accomplish two things – he would sit on the throne with the preferred Tullia by his side and he would also get rid of a possible competitor. Lucius and Tullia finished off the plan successfully. The king thus lost a daughter and a son-in-law and the remaining daughter with the remaining son-in-law were ready to kill him. His days were numbered. Not long after the death of their spouses, the two murderers got married.

Dionysius mentions their attempt to seize power in a non-violent way. Here Lucius Tarquinius presented the arguments in front of the Senate and the people, arguing that the throne belongs to him as he is the rightful heir of Tarquinius Priscus. But Servius Tullius argues that the royal power does not come for one’s parents but from the Roman people and that they granted the kingship to him and he did nothing wrong to be stripped of it. The people’s opinion followed Servius and Tarquinius learned he had to use other means to take the throne. He and his new wife started to gather support for the coup among the senators. The support came surprisingly quickly. One would expect the Senate and the people of Rome to stand behind the king who, in more than forty years of his reign, obviously brought internal stability and the respect of the neighbours. But the reforms of Servius Tullius were not universally accepted. The old and rich families did not appreciate the policies to help the poorer inhabitants of the city. They never forgot that this king seized his title with the help of tricks and was not properly chosen after a period of interregnum as had been the custom before (even though he did get elected eventually). Where arguments didn’t help, money did. Soon Lucius Tarquinius had so many supporters on his side, that he dared to challenge the king in an extremely impudent way.


Lucius Junius Brutus

Lucius Junius Brutus (/ˈluːʃiəs, -ʃəs, ⲍʒuːnjəs ⲋruːtəs/) was the founder of the Roman Republic and traditionally one of the first consuls in 509 BC. He was claimed as an ancestor of the Roman gens Junia, including Decimus Junius Brutus and Marcus Junius Brutus, the most famous of Julius Caesar's assassins.

Prior to the establishment of the Roman Republic, Rome had been ruled by kings. Brutus led the revolt that overthrew the last king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, after the rape of the noblewoman (and kinswoman of Brutus) Lucretia at the hands of Tarquin's son Sextus Tarquinius. The account is from Livy's Ab urbe condita and deals with a point in the history of Rome prior to reliable historical records (virtually all prior records were destroyed by the Gauls when they sacked Rome under Brennus in 390 BC or 387 BC).

Overthrow of the monarchy

Brutus was the son of Tarquinia, daughter of Rome's fifth king Lucius Tarquinius Priscus and sister to Rome's seventh king Tarquinius Superbus.

According to Livy, Brutus had a number of grievances against his uncle the king, amongst them was the fact that Tarquin had put to death a number of the chief men of Rome, including Brutus' brother. Brutus avoided the distrust of Tarquin's family by feigning slow-wittedness (in Latin brutus translates to dullard).

He accompanied Tarquin's sons on a trip to the Oracle of Delphi. The sons asked the oracle who would be the next ruler of Rome. The Oracle responded the next person to kiss his mother would become king. Brutus interpreted "mother" to mean the Earth, so he pretended to trip and kissed the ground.

Brutus, along with Spurius Lucretius Tricipitinus, Publius Valerius Publicola, and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus were summoned by Lucretia to Collatia after she had been raped by Sextus Tarquinius, the son of the king Tarquinius Superbus. Lucretia, believing that the rape dishonored her and her family, committed suicide by stabbing herself with a dagger after telling of what had befallen her. According to legend, Brutus grabbed the dagger from Lucretia's breast after her death and immediately shouted for the overthrow of the Tarquins.

The four men gathered the youth of Collatia, then went to Rome where Brutus, being at that time Tribunus Celerum, summoned the people to the forum and exhorted them to rise up against the king. The people voted for the deposition of the king, and the banishment of the royal family.

Brutus, leaving Lucretius in command of the city, proceeded with armed men to the Roman army then camped at Ardea. The king, who had been with the army, heard of developments at Rome, and left the camp for the city before Brutus' arrival. The army received Brutus as a hero, and the king's sons were expelled from the camp. Tarquinius Superbus, meanwhile, was refused entry at Rome, and fled with his family into exile.

The Oath of Brutus

According to Livy, Brutus' first act after the expulsion of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was to bring the people to swear an oath never to allow any man again to be king in Rome.

Omnium primum avidum novae libertatis populum, ne postmodum flecti precibus aut donis regiis posset, iure iurando adegit neminem Romae passuros regnare. (First of all, by swearing an oath that they would suffer no man to rule Rome, it forced the people, desirous of a new liberty, not to be thereafter swayed by the entreaties or bribes of kings.)

This is, fundamentally, a restatement of the 'private oath' sworn by the conspirators to overthrow the monarchy:

Per hunc. castissimum ante regiam iniuriam sanguinem iuro, vosque, di, testes facio me L. Tarquinium Superbum cum scelerata coniuge et omni liberorum stirpe ferro igni quacumque dehinc vi possim exsecuturum, nec illos nec alium quemquam regnare Romae passurum. (By this guiltless blood before the kingly injustice I swear – you and the gods as my witnesses – I make myself the one who will prosecute, by what force I am able, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus along with his wicked wife and the whole house of his freeborn children by sword, by fire, by any means hence, so that neither they nor any one else be suffered to rule Rome.)

There is no scholarly agreement that the oath took place it is reported, although differently, by Plutarch (Poplicola, 2) and Appian (B.C. 2.119). Nevertheless, the spirit of the oath inspired later Romans including his descendant Marcus Junius Brutus.

Consulship and death

Brutus and Lucretia's bereaved husband, Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, were elected as the first consuls of Rome (509 BC). However, Tarquinius was soon replaced by Publius Valerius Publicola. Brutus' first acts during his consulship, according to Livy, included administering an oath to the people of Rome to never again accept a king in Rome (see above) and replenishing the number of senators to 300 from the principal men of the equites. The new consuls also created a new office of rex sacrorum to carry out the religious duties that had previously been performed by the kings.

During his consulship the royal family made an attempt to regain the throne, firstly by their ambassadors seeking to subvert a number of the leading Roman citizens in the Tarquinian conspiracy. Amongst the conspirators were two brothers of Brutus' wife Vitellia, and Brutus' two sons, Titus Junius Brutus and Tiberius Junius Brutus. The conspiracy was discovered and the consuls determined to punish the conspirators with death. Brutus gained respect for his stoicism in watching the execution of his own sons, even though he showed emotion during the punishment.

Tarquin again sought to retake the throne soon after at the Battle of Silva Arsia, leading the forces of Tarquinii and Veii against the Roman army. Valerius led the infantry, and Brutus led the cavalry. Aruns, the king's son, led the Etruscan cavalry. The cavalry first joined battle and Aruns, having spied from afar the lictors, and thereby recognising the presence of a consul, soon saw that Brutus was in command of the cavalry. The two men, who were cousins, charged each other, and speared each other to death. The infantry also soon joined the battle, the result being in doubt for some time. The right wing of each army was victorious, the army of Tarquinii forcing back the Romans, and the Veientes being routed. However the Etruscan forces eventually fled the field, the Romans claiming the victory.

The surviving consul, Valerius, after celebrating a triumph for the victory, held a funeral for Brutus with much magnificence. The Roman noblewomen mourned him for one year, for his vengeance of Lucretia's violation.

Brutus in literature and art

Lucius Junius Brutus is quite prominent in English literature, and he was quite popular among British and American Whigs.

A reference to L. J. Brutus is in the following lines from Shakespeare's play The Tragedie of Julius Cæsar, (Cassius to Marcus Brutus, Act 1, Scene 2).

"O, you and I have heard our fathers say, There was a Brutus once that would have brookt Th'eternal devil to keep his state in Rome As easily as a king."

One of the main charges of the senatorial faction that plotted against Julius Caesar after he had the Roman Senate declare him dictator for life, was that he was attempting to make himself a king, and a co-conspirator Cassius, enticed Brutus' direct descendant, Marcus Junius Brutus, to join the conspiracy by referring to his ancestor.

L. J. Brutus is a leading character in Shakespeare's Rape of Lucrece and in Nathaniel Lee's Restoration tragedy (1680), Lucius Junius Brutus Father of his Country.

In The Mikado, the protagonist Nanki-poo refers to his father the Emperor as "the Lucius Junius Brutus of his race", for being willing to enforce his own law even if it means killing his son.

The memory of L. J. Brutus also had a profound impact on Italian patriots, including those who established the ill-fated Roman Republic in February 1849.

Brutus was a hero of republicanism during the Enlightenment and Neoclassical periods. In 1789, at the dawn of the French Revolution, master painter Jacques-Louis David publicly exhibited his politically charged masterwork, The Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons, to great controversy.


Tarquinius the Proud

King Lucius Tarquinius Superbus murdered his father at the request of his wife, Tullia. His reign began in 535 B.C that is where he appears on the Bible Timeline with World History. King Superbus was a man who possessed an angry disposition and spirit, and he was also filled with insolence and arrogance. This is one of the major reasons why he was dubbed Tarquinius the Proud.

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King Superbus was the son of Rome’s sixth King Servius Tullius and he also had a brother named Aruns. King Servius Tullius had two daughters that he named Tullia. The younger of the two daughters was a mean spirited female who despised Aruns her marriage to Aruns. He wasn’t considered strong enough for her, so she was drawn to Superbus, who was a lot more ruthless. Superbus was married to Tullia’s older sister who was also a good hearted woman. Superbus didn’t like her and desired the younger Tullia and both of them schemed to kill their siblings and then to kill their father the king.

Once Tarquinius took the throne, he quickly eliminated any senators who sympathized with his father. After he slaughtered the Senators, he then dismissed the remaining Senate members and made decisions without them. He purposely stripped them of their power so he could do whatever he pleased. He then trumped up false charges so he could kill off a Latin political leader who had enough foresight to see that King Superbus wasn’t going to be a good ruler.

Tarquinius the Proud then married off his daughter to secure foreign power over the Latin tribes. He schemed and began to subdue more of the surrounding tribes outside of Rome including the people of Sabine. He continued Rome’s peace treaty with the Etruscans, and he also established Roman colonies. He erected the Temple of Jupiter on Capitoline Hill. Throughout the rest of his reign, he connived and tricked many people while forcing others to do his will.

King Superbus also had a son named Sextus Tarquinius who raped an incredibly beautiful woman named Lucretia from the land of Collatia. King Superbus wanted to take this territory and had sent his son Sextus to lead the expedition. Sextus had snuck into Lucretia’s chambers and forced himself on her. Lucretia committed suicide, and her father was outraged. Other leading members of Roman society and the Collatia also joined her father in rebelling against the king. Tarquinius the Proud and his family were eventually exiled from Rome. After his demise, this led to the forming of the Republic of Rome which was now led by the consuls Brutus and Collantinus.


Overthrowing the King of Rome

Brutus, who came with Collatinus, took the dagger from Lucretia's wound, called the grieving party to order and proposed that they drive the Tarquinii from Rome. Holding the bloody dagger in his hand, he swore that he would do everything in his power to overthrow the dominion of the Tarquinii…

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Top Image: Lucretia And Tarquin, 17 th century painting ( Public Domain ) Deriv.


Who led the revolt against Tarquinius Superbus?

In respect to this, who overthrew Tarquinius Superbus?

Despite a number of attempts by Lucius Tarquinius Superbus to reinstate the monarchy, the citizens established a republic and thereafter elected two consuls annually to rule the city.

Overthrow of the Roman monarchy.

Overthrow of L. Tarquinius Superbus
L. Junius Brutus Patricians Plebeians L. Tarquinius Superbus

Also Know, how did Lucius Tarquinius priscus die? Assassination

Secondly, why did the Romans revolt against the Etruscans?

A rebellion of the aristocracy against Tarquinius Superbus was led by Junius Brutus about 509 BC. The Etruscans were expelled from the city, and Rome became a republic. Soon afterward the Etruscans were driven from the rest of Latium as well. From that time the title of king was hateful to the Roman people.

Who killed Tarquinius priscus?

HN 36. 107). Tarquin was assassinated by the sons of Ancus Marcius, but their bid for the throne was thwarted by Tanaquil, who secured it for her favourite Servius Tullius.


Ancient History Sourcebook: Livy: The Rape of Lucretia, from the History of Rome

It took the Roman historian Livy (d. 17 AD) forty years to write his 142-book History of Rome. In this excerpt, he repeats a legend which was extremely important to Romans during the Republic. The sons of the King of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, are at Ardea, a city which the army is attempting to conquer, when they hear of the virtue of the Roman matron Lucretia.

Question:
What virtues does this story put forth for Roman society through the example of Lucretia? Why would this story have mattered to Romans?

LVII. One day when the young men were drinking at the house of Sextus Tarquinius, after a supper where they had dined with the son of Egerius, Tarquinius Conlatinus, they fell to talking about their wives, and each man fell to praising his wife to excess. Finally Tarquinius Conlatinus declared that there was no need to argue they might all be sure that no one was more worthy than his Lucretia. "Young and vigorous as we are, why don't we go get out horses and go and see for ourselves what our wives are doing? And we will base our judgement on whatever we see them doing when their husbands arrive unannounced." Encouraged by the wine, "Yes, let's go!" they all cried, and they went on horseback to the city. Darkness was beginning to fall when they arrived and they went to the house of Conlatinus. There, they found Lucretia behaving quite differently from the daughters-in-law of the King, whom they had found with their friends before a grand feast, preparing to have a night of fun. Lucretia, even though it was night, was still working on her spinning, with her servants, in the middle of her house. They were all impressed by Lucretia's chaste honor. When her husband and the Tarquins arrived, she received them, and her husband, the winner, was obliged to invite the king's sons in. It was then that Sextus Tarquinius was seized by the desire to violate Lucretia's chastity, seduced both by her beauty and by her exemplary virtue. Finally, after a night of youthful games, they returned to the camp.

LVIII. Several days passed. Sextus Tarquinius returned to the house of Conlatinus, with one of his companions. He was well received and given the hospitality of the house, and maddened with love, he waited until he was sure everyone else was asleep. Then he took up his sword and went to Lucretia's bedroom, and placing his sword against her left breast, he said, "Quiet, Lucretia I am Sextus Tarquinius, and I have a sword in my hand. If you speak, you will die." Awakening from sleep, the poor woman realized that she was without help and very close to death. Sextus Tarquinius declared his love for her, begging and threatening her alternately, and attacked her soul in every way. Finally, before her steadfastness, which was not affected by the fear of death even after his intimidation, he added another menace. "When I have killed you, I will put next to you the body of a nude servant, and everyone will say that you were killed during a dishonorable act of adultery." With this menace, Sextus Tarquinius triumphed over her virtue, and when he had raped her he left, having taken away her honor. Lucretia, overcome with sorrow and shame, sent messengers both to her husband at Ardea and her father at Rome, asking them each to come "at once, with a good friend, because a very terrible thing had happened." Spurius Lucretius, her father, came with Publius Valerius, the son of Volesus, and Conlatinus came with Lucius Junius Brutus they had just returned to Rome when they met Lucretia's messenger. They found Lucretia in her chamber, overpowered by grief. When she saw them she began to cry. "How are you?" her husband asked. "Very bad," she replied, "how can anothing go well for a woman who has lost her honor? There are the marks of another man in your bed, Conlatinus. My body is greatly soiled, though my heart is still pure, as my death will prove. But give me your right hand in faith that you will not allow the guilty to escape. It was Sextus Tarquinius who returned our hospitality with enmity last night. With his sword in his hand, he came to take his pleasure for my unhappiness, but it will also be his sorrow if you are real men." They promised her that they would pursue him, and they tried to appease her sorrow, saying that it was the soul that did wrong, and not the body, and because she had had no bad intention, she did no wrong. "It is your responsibility to see that he gets what he deserves," she said, "I will absolve myself of blame, and I will not free myself from punishment. No woman shall use Lucretia as her example in dishonor." Then she took up a knife which she had hidden beneath her robe, and plunged it into her heart, collapsing from her wound she died there amid the cries of her husband and father.

LIX. Brutus, leaving them in their grief, took the knife from Lucretia's wound, and holding it all covered with blood up in the aid, cried, "By this blood, which was so pure before the crime of the prince, I swear before you, O gods, to chase the King Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, with his criminal wife and all their offspring, by fire, iron, and all the methods I have at my disposal, and never to tolerate Kings in Rome evermore, whether of that family of any other."

Source:

Translated from the original in Jean Bayet, ed., Tite-Live: Histoire Romaine, Tome I, livre I. Paris: Societé d'Édition "les belles-lettres," 1954, pp. 92-95.

Thanks to Belle Tuten.

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Book I.i

voluntarily gave in their names, and arming them b.c. 534–510 set out for the camp at Ardea to arouse the troops against the king. The command at Rome he left with Lucretius, who had been appointed Prefect of the City by the king, some time before. During this confusion Tullia fled from her house, cursed wherever she went by men and women, who called down upon her the furies that avenge the wrongs of kindred.

LX. When the news of these events reached the camp, the king, in alarm at the unexpected danger, set out for Rome to put down the revolt. Brutus, who had perceived the king’s approach, made a circuit to avoid meeting him, and at almost the same moment, though by different roads, Brutus reached Ardea and Tarquinius Rome. Against Tarquinius the gates were closed and exile was pronounced. The liberator of the City was received with rejoicings in the camp, and the sons of the king were driven out of it. Two of them followed their father, and went into exile at Caere, in Etruria. Sextus Tarquinius departed for Gabii, as though it had been his own kingdom, and there the revengers of old quarrels, which he had brought upon himself by murder and rapine, slew him.

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus ruled for five and twenty years. The rule of the kings at Rome, from its foundation to its liberation, lasted two hundred and forty-four years. Two consuls were then chosen in the centuriate comitia, under the presidency of the Prefect of the City, in accordance with the commentaries of Servius Tullius. 1 These were Lucius Junius Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus.


Servius Tullius

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Servius Tullius, (flourished 578–535 bc ), traditionally the sixth king of Rome, who is credited with the Servian Constitution, which divided citizens into five classes according to wealth. This attribution may be a reading back into the uncertain past of reforms that were not effected until a much later date. He is also credited, probably incorrectly, with introducing silver and bronze coinage.

According to one tradition, Servius was Etruscan, but other versions suggest that he was Latin. He founded the earliest and most important shrine of the Latin deity Diana on the Aventine Hill. A crucial treaty between Rome and the Latin League is also assigned to his reign. Two levels of the shrine excavated at the Church of Saint Omobono date from the time of Servius. The Servian Wall surrounding Rome, ascribed to this period, dates, however, from the 4th century bc .

In legend he was born a slave in the household of the fifth (traditional) king, Tarquinius Priscus, whose daughter he married and whom he succeeded by the contrivance of his mother-in-law, Tanaquil, who had prophetic powers and saw his greatness. The emperor Claudius (reigned ad 41–54), who was an Etruscan historian, said that Servius was an Etruscan interloper named Mastarna. Servius was eventually killed by his daughter and her husband, the seventh king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus.


Watch the video: Tarquinius Superbus: The Final King of Rome Ancient Rome Explained (August 2022).